Vitamin D as a Neurosteroid Affecting the Developing and Adult Brain
Annual Review of Nutrition, Vol. 34:117-141 - July 2014, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071813-105557
Natalie J. Groves,1 John J. McGrath,1,2,3 and Thomas H.J. Burne1,2,*
Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and growing evidence supports a requirement for optimal vitamin D levels for the healthy developing and adult brain. Vitamin D has important roles in proliferation and differentiation, calcium signaling within the brain, and neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it may also alter neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Recent experimental studies highlight the impact that vitamin D deficiency has on brain function in health and disease. In addition, results from recent animal studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during adulthood may exacerbate underlying brain disorders and/or worsen recovery from brain stressors. An increasing number of epidemiological studies indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D supplementation is readily available and affordable, and this review highlights the need for further research.
THE ACTIONS OF VITAMIN D WITHIN THE BRAIN
RODENT MODELS OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY
LINKS WITH NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS
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