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Antibiotics and Vitamin D are associated with many of the same diseases

Antibiotics Vitamin D and health

Missing Microbes book (April 2014) powerfully relates
many disease increases to increased use of antibiotics

The author (Martin Blaser martin.blaser at med.nyu.edu ) , a world expert on antibiotics, makes very strong cases that antibiotics is the cause of many of the increases in diseases we have seen in the past 10-30 years: such as obesity, diabetes, asthma, autism, ...
Due to huge increase in antibiotics courses for humans AND virtually continuous low-level antibiotics for farm animals
   (it increases weight by about 10% with no increase in feed cost)

Author provides strong support with both mouse and human trials.
Basically broad spectrum antibiotics kills off the "good" bugs as well as the bad ones. (Narrow spectrum are rarely available and are far far more expensive)

Vitamin D improves immune function, so vitamin D is able to treat many of the problems causes by antibiotics
Author calls for reduced used of antibiotics, especially in first 2 years of life
Similar calls for reduced antibiotics for humans and farm animals in Europe in a previous decade has not resulted in much change.

Risk Factors seem to have a maximum of about 15X for:
Vitamin D, Antibiotics, and Genetics
Risk Factors seem to be smaller for:
environment, exercise, smoking, pollution, toxins in food, etc.

Increased Roundup and Antibiotics
Image

Health Problem
(typically associated
with low Vitamin D)
% increase
in a decade
AntibioticRoundup
Autism 250 %Antibiotic Roundup
Diabetes 66 %Antibiotic Roundup
Overweight kids 150 %Antibiotic Roundup
obesity deaths
Parkinson's 110 % - Roundup
Alzheimer's. 1000% -Roundup
Dementia ?% -Roundup
Thyroid Cancer80 % -
Breast Cancer 110 %Antibiotic
then BRAC1
Tuberculosis 100 % -
Multiple Sclerosis 70 % - Roundup
Ulcerative Colitis 210 %Antibiotic
Concussions 80 % -
Traumatic Brain Injury170 % -
Pulmonary Hypertension88 % -
Alzheimer's ?? % Roun-2017
Dimentia 60 % -
Hospitalizations - Food Allergy 260 %Antibiotic
C-Section 40 %Antibiotic
Peanut Allergy40 %Antibiotic
ALS deaths 60 Roun-2017
Knee injury (teen) 400 % -
Chronic Disease in Children70 % -
Metabolic Syndrome 250 % Antibiotic
Bipolar Disorder - youth 4,400 % -
Celliac 100 %Antibiotic Roundup
ADHD (LA schools)230 % Roun-2017
Rickets-Minn.    (UK 600 %)500 % -
IBD 200 % Antibiotic Roundup
Lyme Disease300 %Antibiotic
Clostridium difficile (age > 85)400 %Antibiotic
fecal transfer cure
Sleep Apnea200 % -
MRSA 600%Antibiotic
GERD (No reported
association with vitamin D?)
140%Antibiotics
suspected
Esophageal Cancer 80% Antibiotic
Kidney 120% -Roundup
    Total of 35 increased diseases
34 associated
with low vitamin D
16 associated
with Antibiotic
13 associated
with Roundup


Strong indications in Missing Microbes that early antibiotics increases the risk of obesity

  1. Farmers have been giving low-level anitbiotics to animals since they learned long ago that it would increase by 10% the animal weight without increased cost of feed
  2. Mice given low-level antibiotics for first 4 weeks of life become heavier later in life
  3. Children who are given antibiotics in first 6 months of life are 5X more likely to become obese (study in England of 14,000 births)
  4. US States which get the most antibiotics are those states with the most obesity (CDC)
  5. Obese US adults have 1/2 of the gut biotic diversity of non-obese adults (400,000 vs 800,000)
  6. Germ-Free mice became obese when given fecal transplants from mice who had antibiotics and became obese
    This is a strong indication that the cause of the obesity was the gut microbiome


Misc. notes from the book Missing Microbes

  • 100 Million neurons in gut (vs 100 Billion neurons in adult brain)
  • Author is very concerned about increased antibiotics ==> increased disease
  • Author is extremely concerned about antibiotic resistance ==> world-wide pandemic - far worse than any in the past 500 years
  • 17 antibiotic courses by age 20 in the US now (varies a lot with which state you live in - see map below)
  • Antibiotics in US children < age 2: 1365 / 1000 (average of more than 1 per child)
  • Sweden banned antibiotics for farm animal weight gain in 1986
  • US continues to give antibiotics to new-born infant eyes - vs Sweden does not, and has no eye infection anyway
  • C-Section 4% in Sweden, 30% in US (go to 50% by 2020), and 80% in Rome
  • Esophageal Cancer increased 6X in 30 years (see chart on this page) - while H.pylori decreased
  • Currently only 6% of US children have H.pylori
  • GERD (Heart Burn) currently 10-20% of US - author believes it it due to reduction in H.pylori
  • Study found 8X more GERD if no H.pylori
  • GERD has suspected 2-way-link with Asthma
  • Modern plagues: obesity, T1 diabetes, asthma, hay fever, food allergies, esphageal reflux and cancer, celiac disease, chron’s disease, ulcerative colitits, autism, ecezma, MRAS, C-diff; also increase in C-sections
  • There are perhaps 10,000 species of bacteria in the adult human colon.
    There appear to be no bacteria in fetus before birth.
  • Author is against using antibiotics for runny nose and ear infections. 80% of upper RTI are virus – which are not treated with antibiotics
  • BRCA breast cancer developes earlier in women born after 1940 (had antibiotics)
  • C.diff infections (antibiotic resistant) now account for 250,000 hospitalizations and 14,000 deaths
    C.diff cure rate with fecal transfer 94 %, standard drug cure rate is only 31%
    And it's not far fetched to think that (fecal transfer) also could be used to treat obesity and a variety of immunoloic disorders, possibly including autism
  • MRSA infections (antibiotic resistant) now affect 2,000,000 US per year for 250,000 hospitalizations and 23,000 deaths
  • Author is concerned that many "contingency" organisms are totally wiped out by antibiotics - probiotics does NOT replace them ANTIBIOTIC WINTER
    15-40% of microbial diversity is lost in otherwise normal individuals (for more loss of diversity in those who are obese, . . )
  • 70% of kids with upper respiratory infection get an antibiotic - when the problem is typically due to a virus - which is not stopped by antibiotics
  • Many countries have been trying to preserve "antibiotic efficacy" for 10-20 years.
    FDA started thinking about an optional decrease in antibiotics for animals in 2013
    +July 2014 update: Court ruling: FDA can allow antibiotics in animal feed NY Times
  • Hardly any good trials of probiotics so far. Author anticipates probiotics will be standard care with antibiotics (10-20 years?)

Esophageal Cancer
Image


Thoughts by Henry Lahore - admin of VitaminDWiki

  • Are there societies which have had very little or perhaps no antibiotics?
    Have their disease rates increased?
  • What % of weight gain can be explained by the antibiotic data
  • Chemotherapy leads to bacterial infection – wonder if Chemo is like antibiotic – author does not seem to say
  • So, what might be increasing so many diseases all around the world?
    besides: Increased Antibiotics, and Decreased vitamin D?
    If not, what %. Are they synergistic?

Update Sept 2015

Blaser is heading a task force to look at alternatives. First meeting Sept 29 2015
The US Is Finally Taking Action on Antibiotic Resistance Wired Magazine
We’ll be asking questions like:
How do we curtail antibiotic use?
Can we come up with alternatives to antibiotics?
Can we have narrow spectrum antibiotics that only target harmful bacteria?
Can we develop new diagnostics to show viral versus antibacterial infections?


Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Jul;37(7):900-6. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.49. Epub 2013 Apr 8.
Blustein J1, Attina T, Liu M, Ryan AM, Cox LM, Blaser MJ, Trasande L.

OBJECTIVES: To assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence.
DESIGN: Longitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Children born in 1991-1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n=10 219).
OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10 and 20 months; and body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years). Secondary outcome: categorical overweight or obese (BMI: 85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years.
RESULTS: Of the 10 219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower-birth weights than those born vaginally (-46.1 g, 95% confidence interval(CI): 14.6-77.6 g; P=0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at 6 weeks (+0.11 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.03-0.18; P=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment+0.10 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.001-0.198; P=0.042). By age 11 caesarean-delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24-2.70; P=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal-weight mothers was weak.
CONCLUSION: Cesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal microbiome.
PMID: 23670220


Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome: the science of translation.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Dec;1306:1-17. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12303. Epub 2013 Nov 22.
Petschow B1, Doré J, Hibberd P, Dinan T, Reid G, Blaser M, Cani PD, Degnan FH, Foster J, Gibson G, Hutton J, Klaenhammer TR, Ley R, Nieuwdorp M, Pot B, Relman D, Serazin A, Sanders ME.

Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions.
© 2013 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.
PMID: 24266656
Image
Probiotics, prebiotics, and the host microbiome - the science of translation – June 2013 is extracted with highlights by VitaminDWiki
PDF (Dec 2013) is attached at the bottom of this page


Pathways in microbe-induced obesity.

Cell Metab. 2013 Jun 4;17(6):883-94. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.05.004.
Cox LM1, Blaser MJ.

Diet, host gene composition, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota can contribute to obesity. In microbe-induced obesity, metabolic changes stem from primary perturbation of the microbiota, consequent to modern changes in human biology. Microbiota disruption during early development can result in syndromes of metabolic dysfunction. We focus on the pathways involved in these interactions, particularly related to energy extraction and the role of inflammation in the metabolic phenotypes. Model physiologic systems and perturbations including gastric bypass surgery, pregnancy, and hibernation provide insight into the respective roles of the critical participants.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 23747247
Image
PDF (Micro-induced is attached at the bottom of this page


A Brave New World: The Lung Microbiota in an Era of Change

Annals of the American Thoracic Society, Vol. 11, No. Supplement 1 (2014), pp. S21-S27. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201306-189MG
Leopoldo N. Segal1 and Martin J. Blaser 1
Corresponding Author: Leopoldo N. Segal, M.D., NYU School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue 7W54, New York, NY 10016. E-mail: Leopoldo.Segal at nyumc.org

The development of culture-independent techniques has revolutionized our understanding of how our human cells interact with the even greater number of microbial inhabitants of our bodies. As part of this revolution, data are increasingly challenging the old dogma that in health, the lung mucosa is sterile. To understand how the lung microbiome may play a role in human health, we identified five major questions for lung microbiome research:

  • (1) Is the lung sterile?
  • (2) Is there a unique core microbiome in the lung?
  • (3) How dynamic are the microbial populations?
  • (4) How do pulmonary immune responses affect microbiome composition? and
  • (5) Are the lungs influenced by the intestinal immune responses to the gut microbiome?

From birth, we are exposed to continuous microbial challenges that shape our microbiome. In our changing environment, perturbation of the gut microbiome affects both human health and disease. With widespread antibiotic use, the ancient microbes that formerly resided within us are being lost, for example, Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Animal models show that antibiotic exposure in early life has developmental consequences. Considering the potential effects of this altered microbiome on pulmonary responses will be critical for future investigations.

Publisher has the PDF behind a $20 paywall


Antibiotic exposure and the development of coeliac disease: a nationwide case-control study.

BMC Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul 8;13:109. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-13-109.
Mårild K1, Ye W, Lebwohl B, Green PH, Blaser MJ, Card T, Ludvigsson JF.

BACKGROUND:
The intestinal microbiota has been proposed to play a pathogenic role in coeliac disease (CD). Although antibiotics are common environmental factors with a profound impact on intestinal microbiota, data on antibiotic use as a risk factor for subsequent CD development are scarce.
METHODS:
In this population-based case-control study we linked nationwide histopathology data on 2,933 individuals with CD (Marsh stage 3; villous atrophy) to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register to examine the association between use of systemic antibiotics and subsequent CD. We also examined the association between antibiotic use in 2,118 individuals with inflammation (Marsh 1-2) and in 620 individuals with normal mucosa (Marsh 0) but positive CD serology. All individuals undergoing biopsy were matched for age and sex with 28,262 controls from the population.
RESULTS:
Antibiotic use was associated with

  • CD (Odds ratio OR = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-1.53),
  • inflammation (OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.72-2.10) and
  • normal mucosa with positive CD serology (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.30-1.92).

ORs for prior antibiotic use in CD were similar when we excluded antibiotic use in the last year (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.08-1.56) or restricted to individuals without comorbidity (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.16 - 1.46).
CONCLUSIONS:
The positive association between antibiotic use and subsequent CD but also with lesions that may represent early CD suggests that intestinal dysbiosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of CD. However, non-causal explanations for this positive association cannot be excluded.
PMID: 23834758
PDF (coeliac disease) is attached at the bottom of this page


More H-pylori, less stroke - Sept 2013

Association between Helicobacter pylori and mortality in the NHANES III study
Gut. 2013 Sep;62(9):1262-9. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303018. Epub 2013 Jan 8.
Chen Y1, Segers S, Blaser MJ.

OBJECTIVE:
Persistent colonisation by Helicobacter pylori, and especially by cagA-positive strains, has been related to several health outcomes with effects in opposite directions. Thus, it is important to evaluate its influence on total and category-specific mortality.
DESIGN:
We conducted prospective cohort analyses in a nationally representative sample of 9895 participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III to assess the association of H pylori status with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Analyses for the association of H pylori cagA positivity with mortality were conducted in 7384 subjects with data on H pylori cagA status.
RESULTS:
In older people (> 40.1 years), H pylori was not associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.18).
There was an inverse association of H pylori status with stroke mortality (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.08), and the inverse association was stronger for H pylori cagA positivity, with the HR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.76). H pylori was also strongly positively related to gastric cancer mortality. After we adjusted p values using the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate method to account for multiple comparisons, these associations remained, and H pylori status was not related to other outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our findings suggest that H pylori has a mixed role in human health, but is not a major risk factor for all-cause mortality.

PMID: 23303440
Publisher charges for the PDF


Infant antibiotic exposures and early-life body mass.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Jan;37(1):16-23. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.132. Epub 2012 Aug 21.
Trasande L1, Blustein J, Liu M, Corwin E, Cox LM, Blaser MJ.

OBJECTIVES:
To examine the associations of antibiotic exposures during the first 2 years of life and the development of body mass over the first 7 years of life.
DESIGN:
Longitudinal birth cohort study.
SUBJECTS:
A total of 11 532 children born at 2500 g in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based study of children born in Avon, UK in 1991-1992.
MEASUREMENTS:
Exposures to antibiotics during three different early-life time windows (<6 months, 6-14 months, 15-23 months), and indices of body mass at five time points (6 weeks, 10 months, 20 months, 38 months and 7 years).
RESULTS:
Antibiotic exposure during the earliest time window (<6 months) was consistently associated with increased body mass (+0.105 and +0.083 s.d. unit, increase in weight-for-length Z-scores at 10 and 20 months, P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively; body mass index (BMI) Z-score at 38 months +0.067 s.d. units, P=0.009; overweight OR 1.22 at 38 months, P=0.029) in multivariable, mixed-effect models controlling for known social and behavioral obesity risk factors. Exposure from 6 to 14 months showed no association with body mass, while exposure from 15 to 23 months was significantly associated with increased BMI Z-score at 7 years (+0.049 s.d. units, P=0.050). Exposures to non-antibiotic medications were not associated with body mass.
CONCLUSIONS:
Exposure to antibiotics during the first 6 months of life is associated with consistent increases in body mass from 10 to 38 months. Exposures later in infancy (6-14 months, 15-23 months) are not consistently associated with increased body mass. Although effects of early exposures are modest at the individual level, they could have substantial consequences for population health. Given the prevalence of antibiotic exposures in infants, and in light of the growing concerns about childhood obesity, further studies are needed to isolate effects and define life-course implications for body mass and cardiovascular risks.

PMID: 22907693
PDF (infant) is attached at the bottom of this page


Microbionome and Obesity - June 2013 video - Dr. Blaser presenting a paper at medical conference

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6b-fHqFhqyk


Bibliography - Blaser - NY University

http://library.med.nyu.edu/cgi-bin/facbibx.pl?AU=blasem01&YR=2000-2015


US Recommendations on antibiotics fails to recommend reduction of farm antibiotics - Sept 2014

Their Report told of the problem on antibiotics on the farm, but the recommendations made little mention of it.
One of the 14 member of the task force was Dennis Treacy, executive vice president of meat-production giant Smithfield Foods.
Perhaps Dennis had something to do with the omission in the recommendations.
Details at White House Actions on Antibiotic Resistance: Big Steps, Plus Disappointments Wired Magazine
Includes links to both their report and their recommendations.


WHO Antibiotics Resistance 2014

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki.
 Download the slides PDF from VitaminDWiki.


Since 2000 Antibiotics in chicken feed only increases growth by only ~ 1%

CAFOs, Your Gut, and Mental Health Mercola March 2015
“The growth response to antibiotics may have decreased over the past 30 years for several possible reasons.

  • First, the growth response to antibiotics is less important when animal nutrition, hygiene, genetics, and health are optimal. The relative improvement in the growth rate resulting from supplementing the diet of pigs with antibiotics has been shown to be inversely related to the growth rate of animals not being fed antibiotics. With changes in the livestock industry over the past 30 years, all of these factors have improved.
  • Second, increasing levels of resistance in animals could be diminishing the overall effectiveness of AGPs, although data are lacking to evaluate this hypothesis.”

Organic Lables include

  • 100% USDA Organic label offers excellent assurance that antibiotics have not been used at any stage of production.
  • "No antibiotics administered" and similar labels also offer high assurance that antibiotics have not been used, especially if accompanied by a "USDA process Verified" shield.
  • "Grass-fed" label coupled with USDA Organic label means no antibiotics have been used, but if the "grass-fed" label appears alone, antibiotics may have been given.
  • "American Grass-fed" and "Food Alliance Grass-fed" labels indicate that in addition to having been raised on grass, the animal in question received no antibiotics.

See also VitaminDWiki

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See also web

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IBD vs number of antibiotics
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Mercola on antibiotics

  • How Your Microbiome Controls Your Health Mercola May 2014
    includes TedTalk 9 minute video on gut flora Nov 2012
  • Autism associated with low gut flora (due to antibiotics) – Mercola Oct 2014
  • Food and Drugmakers Fight Antibiotic Regulation Even As Reports of Human Risks Grow Mercola, March 2016
    lobbing by American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and the Animal Health Institute (AHI) has stopped all legislation to even slow the use of antibiotics
    "Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), which was supported by over 450 medical and consumer advocate groups7 but blocked with millions of dollars in lobbying money from meat and agricultural interests."
    cephalosporins for food-producing animals INCREASED by 57 % between 2009 through 2014.
    "Dr. Judy Stone recently reported in Forbes that she was seeing disturbing amounts of delirium, confusion and hallucinations in patients taking antibiotics, especially elderly and hospitalized patients"
    "In hospitalized patients, in particular, it’s easy to attribute new confusion to ‘sundowning’ (where elderly get confused at night) or ICU psychosis."
    Note by Henry Lahore - it happened to my 103 year-old father-in-law antibiotics both in hospital and in home

2017 update

  • Should We Continue to Feed Antibiotics to Livestock? Scientific American Feb 2015
    "Currently 80 percent of all antibiotics sold in the U.S. are given to poultry and livestock"
    Image
  • We Will Miss Antibiotics When They’re Gone NYT Jan 2017
    No mention that only 20% of all antibiotics are actually given to humans in the US
    Talks about trying to produce even more new antibiotics.
    Currently 23,000 people a year in the US die of bacterial infection which current antibiotics cannot treat

"You must finish your course of antibiotics" - that dogma was based on ZERO studies - July 2017

The concept of finishing a course of antibiotics was based on a single person in 1941.
The British Medical Journal (July 2017) describes the origin of the myth and its consequences
The medical community went from undocumented fear of undertreatment to documented harm from overtreatment
It is OK to stop taking the antibiotics once you feel well.

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Big Chicken- antibiotics book - Sept 2017

__Wired Mag Sept 2017

  • "THESE DAYS, THE only thing more American than apple pie is eating an animal raised on antibiotics. Eighty percent of antibiotics sold in the US go not to human patients, but to the nation’s plate-bound pigs, cows, turkeys, and chickens"

Amazon

Videos - problems with antibiotics

Antibiotics and Vitamin D are associated with many of the same diseases        

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ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
8231 The antibiotic course has had its day - 1 person in 1941.pdf PDF 2017 admin 28 Jul, 2017 07:18 997.80 Kb 61
7686 Antibiotics SciAm.jpg admin 19 Jan, 2017 20:12 19.21 Kb 1186
5845 Antibiotic Fleming.jpg admin 27 Aug, 2015 02:39 56.40 Kb 2154
5843 Antibiotic Resistance.jpg admin 27 Aug, 2015 02:32 39.42 Kb 2975
4942 WHO - antibiotics 2014.pdf PDF admin 21 Jan, 2015 00:56 4.23 Mb 1589
4941 WHO antibiotics slides.pdf admin 21 Jan, 2015 00:55 1.42 Mb 949
4865 Gut newsletter Nov 2014.PDF PDF 2014 admin 11 Jan, 2015 21:59 719.14 Kb 1006
4864 Gut Oct 2014 Singapore.pdf PDF 2014 admin 11 Jan, 2015 21:59 167.49 Kb 1141
4863 Targeting Microbiota 2014 posters.pdf admin 11 Jan, 2015 21:44 315.85 Kb 1281
4862 Targeting Microbiota 2014 Program.pdf PDF 2014 admin 11 Jan, 2015 21:44 553.54 Kb 1010
4176 antibiotic dev or no longer working.jpg admin 23 Jul, 2014 17:46 30.38 Kb 4714
4160 IBD vs number of antibiotics.jpg admin 20 Jul, 2014 21:50 22.10 Kb 4715
4159 Antibiotics in Meat - Scientific American.jpg admin 20 Jul, 2014 21:48 33.90 Kb 4853
4158 Esophageal Cancer.jpg admin 20 Jul, 2014 21:46 43.59 Kb 4774
4157 osbesity antibiotics.jpg admin 20 Jul, 2014 15:41 71.19 Kb 6926
4156 infant.pdf PDF 2014 admin 20 Jul, 2014 14:08 209.77 Kb 1090
4155 coeliac disease.pdf PDF 2014 admin 20 Jul, 2014 13:47 321.01 Kb 2059
4154 micro-induced obesity.jpg admin 20 Jul, 2014 13:26 54.11 Kb 5232
4153 microbe-induced obesity.pdf PDF 2013 admin 20 Jul, 2014 13:23 1.99 Mb 1130
4152 Blaser Dec 2013.pdf PDF 2013 admin 20 Jul, 2014 13:18 1.11 Mb 1157
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