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ADHD and Vitamin D Deficiency

ADHD category listing has 12 items along with related searches

Did you know?
  • ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder    Wikipedia
  • ADHD children have much lower levels of vitamin D
  • Less sun is associated with more ADHD (season and latitude)
  • The ADHD rate has increased a lot in past few decades - especially for adults
  • Vitamin D levels have dropped a lot in the past few decades
  • There are many positive observational studies of Vitamin D and ADHD
  • ADHD shares risk factors with Autism and many other diseases
       Low Vitamin D, Low Magnesium, Low Omega-3, Low UVB (= high latitude or winter)
          (More ADHD info below)

Learn how Vitamin D is essential for good health
  Watch a 5 minute video "Does Less Sun Mean more Disease?"
  Browse for other Health Problems and D in left column or here
  see also Supplementing and More in the menu at the top of very page

All items in ADHD category on VitaminDWiki


See also VitaminDWiki


Overlap of ADHD and Autism, etc

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ADHD Celebs

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See web

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THE ADHD HALL OF FAME: Benjamin Franklin, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Galileo, Thomas Edison, Wilbur Wright, Leonardo da Vinci, Walt Disney. Louis Pasteur, Winstone Churchill, Henry Ford, Alexander Graham Bell, Beethoven, Pablo Picasso, William Randolph Hearst, Robert Frost, Frank Lloyd Wright, Nikola Tessla - in the 2008 book "Healing the New Childhood Epidemics: Autism, ADHD, Asthma, and Allergies: The Groundbreaking Program for the 4-A Disorders" which has a chapter on supplements, "One of these conditions now strikes one in every three children in America."


ADHD 2 X more likely if Tylenol used a lot during pregnancy (Autism increased too) – Dec 2016

ADHD 2 X more likely if Tylenol used a lot during pregnancy (Autism increased too) – Dec 2016


ADHD reduced by Omega-3 in trials either using high doses or over long term – July 2016

Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 Jul 26;12:1869-82. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S68652. eCollection 2016.
Königs A1, Kiliaan AJ1.Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition & Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients' blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as "ADHD" and "ω-3/6 PUFA" and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported.

In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication.

PMID: 27555775 PMCID: PMC4968854 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S68652
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


ADHD children had 21 ng of vitamin D (control = 35 ng) – Jan 2014

Vitamin D Status in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Pediatr Int. 2014 Jan 13. doi: 10.1111/ped.12286.
Goksugur SB, Tufan AE, Semiz M, Gunes C, Bekdas M, Tosun M, Demircioglu F.
Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of the childhood is an early onset, affecting 2-18 % of the children worldwide. Etiopathogenesis of ADHD is obscure. In recent studies, low levels of vitamin D are found in association with many disorders as well as in neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate serum vitamin D levels in pediatric ADHD patients.

METHODS: A total of 60 ADHD patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Ages of the both groups were in 7 and 18 years old range. Serum levels of 25-OH-Vitamin D, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were investigated.

RESULTS: Serum levels of 25-OH-vitamin D were found to be significantly lower in children and adolescents with ADHD compared to healthy controls and no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of other variables. 25-OH-vitamin D level in ADHD group and control group was respectively; 20.9±19.4 ng/mL and 34.9±15.4 ng/mL (p=0.001).

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that there is an association between lower 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations and ADHD in childhood and adolescence. Up to our knowledge this is the first study that investigate the relationship between vitamin D and ADHD in children.

PMID: 24417979 patients/caregivers can buy a copy of the study from the publisher for just $3.50


ADHD 2 times more likely if poor Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio – meta-analysis May 2016

in VitaminDWiki


Less sun ==> more ADHD (March 2013)

Geographic Variation in the Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Sunny Perspective
Biological Psychiatry, doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.010
Martijn Arns email address; Kristiaan B. van der Heijden, L. Eugene Arnold. J. Leon Kenemans
Received 6 December 2012; received in revised form 19 February 2013; accepted 19 February 2013. published online 25 March 2013.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood, with average worldwide prevalence of 5.3%, varying by region.

Methods: We assessed the relationship between the prevalence of ADHD and solar intensity (SI) (kilowatt hours/square meters/day) on the basis of multinational and cross-state studies. Prevalence data for the U.S. were based on self-report of professional diagnoses; prevalence data for the other countries were based on diagnostic assessment. The SI data were obtained from national institutes.

Results: In three datasets (across 49 U.S. states for 2003 and 2007, and across 9 non-U.S. countries) a relationship between SI and the prevalence of ADHD was found, explaining 34%–57% of the variance in ADHD prevalence, with high SI having an apparent preventative effect. Controlling for low birth weight, infant mortality, average income (socioeconomic status), latitude, and other relevant factors did not change these findings. Furthermore, these findings were specific to ADHD, not found for the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders or major depressive disorder.

Conclusions: In this study we found a lower prevalence of ADHD in areas with high SI for both U.S. and non-U.S. data. This association has not been reported before in the literature.
The preventative effect of high SI might be related to an improvement of circadian clock disturbances, which have recently been associated with ADHD. These findings likely apply to a substantial subgroup of ADHD patients and have major implications in our understanding of the etiology and possibly prevention of ADHD by medical professionals, schools, parents, and manufacturers of mobile devices.


ADHD children have low vitamin D levels (19 vs 29 ng) 2015

The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Level and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Fall;9(4):48-53.
Sharif MR1, Madani M2, Tabatabaei F3, Tabatabaee Z4.

OBJECTIVE:
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental health disorders. In recent years, the impacts of various micronutrients on ADHD have been studied. However, vitamin D has received much less attention. This study was aimed at evaluating the association and level of serum vitamin D in children with ADHD.

MATERIALS & METHODS: This case-control study was carried out, in 2012, on 6 to 12 yr-old children. Thirty-seven were children with ADHD in the cases group and another 37 healthy children were in the control group. Venous blood sample was drawn from each child to measure the serum level of vitamin D. Other variables were compared as well.

RESULTS: The mean serum vitamin D level of children with ADHD (19.11±10.10 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that of the control group (28.67±13.76 ng/ml) (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION:
Deficiency of vitamin D has been proved in various psychiatric diseases.
This study evidenced a significantly low level of serum vitamin D in children with ADHD.
This suggests the need for regularly monitoring of serum vitamin D levels and treatment of patients with vitamin D deficiencies.

PMID: 26664441
Intervention with vitamin D alleviated signs of ADHD - mentioned in PDF
In an interventional study on 80 patients with ADHD above the age of 16 in New Zealand, reported 27% prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency.
Using vitamin D supplement for eight weeks was found to be effective in alleviating the signs of the disease

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


ADHD children taking methylphenidate or amphetamine for more than 6 months have bone loss - April 2016

The study recommends taking Calcium and Vitamin D to minimize bone loss
VitaminDWiki recommend taking Vitamin D in the first place and avoliding ADHD


For every 10 ng more vitamin D during pregnancy 11% less likely for child to have ADHD symptoms - July 2015

Vitamin D in Pregnancy and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-like Symptoms in Childhood.
Epidemiology. 2015 Jul;26(4):458-65. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000292.
Morales E1, Julvez J, Torrent M, Ballester F, Rodríguez-Bernal CL, Andiarena A, Vegas O, Castilla AM, Rodriguez-Dehli C, Tardón A, Sunyer J.

BACKGROUND:Vitamin D status during prenatal brain development may influence risk of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. However, there are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis. We aimed to examine whether maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with risk of ADHD-like symptoms in offspring.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective study analyzing data from 1,650 mother-child pairs from five birth cohorts embedded in the INMA Project (Spain, 1997-2008). Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy was estimated by measuring plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] at 13 weeks of gestation. Children were assessed by teachers for ADHD-like symptoms at ages 4-5 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ADHD form list.

RESULTS: After adjustment, the number of total ADHD-like symptoms in children decreased by 11% per 10 ng/ml increment of maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80, 0.98). Similarly, the number of symptoms in the ADHD subscales decreased in relation to higher maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (IRR per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.99 for the inattention scale; and IRR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.99 for the hyperactivity-impulsivity scale). Using diagnostic criteria, we found an association of increasing maternal 25(OH)D3 with a lower risk of ADHD DSM-IV (relative risk ratio per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.72, 1.06) and ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder (relative risk ratio = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.49, 1.04) in children.

CONCLUSION: Higher maternal circulating levels of 25(OH)D3 in pregnancy are associated with lower risk of developing ADHD-like symptoms in childhood.

Publisher wants $40 for the PDF


11% decrease in ADHD for each 4 ng increase in cord Vitamin D level - 2016

Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study
Aust N Z J Psychiatry September 30, 2016 0004867416670013
Mats H Mossin1, Jens B Aaby1, Christine Dalgård2, Sine Lykkedegn1,3, Henrik T Christesen1,3; Niels Bilenberg1,4⇑
1Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
2Research Unit of Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
3Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense, Denmark
4Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Odense, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Niels Bilenberg, Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Odense, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, University of Southern Denmark, Sdr. Boulevard 29, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Email: niels.bilenberg at rsyd.dk

Objective: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5–5.

Method: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5–5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist–based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression.

Results The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5–127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L (p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L (p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist–based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D.

Conclusion: An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.

Fewer indications of ADHD in children whose mothers took vitamin D during pregnancy Oct 2016 - report on the study


ADHD prescriptions in US

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ADHD prescription by young adults up 220% in a decade

88% in 4 years by those in age range 26-34 NY Times March 2014

Ritalin in UK

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ADHD Chart of possible reasons (vitamin D not mentioned)

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Magnesium and mental illness chart

Magnesium and Mental Health  see  is.gd/VDMag
Which is in Overview Magnesium and vitamin D

ADHD helped by combination of Omega-3 and Zinc - 2016

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Half of ADHD children treated by Omega-3 RCT 2009

Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents
Journal of Attention Disorders March 2009 vol. 12 no. 5 394-401

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8—18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD Rating Scale—IV and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale were outcome measures. Results: A majority did not respond to omega 3/6 treatment.
However, a subgroup of 26% responded with more than 25% reduction of ADHD symptoms and a drop of CGI scores to the near-normal range.
After 6 months, 47% of all showed such improvement. Responders tended to have ADHD inattentive subtype and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders.
Conclusion: A subgroup of children and adolescents with ADHD, characterized by inattention and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, treated with omega 3/6 fatty acids for 6 months responded with meaningful reduction of ADHD symptoms. (J. of Att. Dis. 2009; 12(5) 394-401)

Publisher still wants $36 for the PDF


ADHD 21 ng, normals 33 ng - June 2014

Vitamin D status in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
Pediatr Int. 2014 Aug;56(4):515-9. doi: 10.1111/ped.12286. Epub 2014 Jun 17.
Goksugur SB1, Tufan AE, Semiz M, Gunes C, Bekdas M, Tosun M, Demircioglu F.
1Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

BACKGROUND:
Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood, has an early onset, affecting 2-18% of children worldwide. The etiopathogenesis of ADHD is obscure. In recent studies, a low level of vitamin D has been found in association with many disorders as well as in neuropsychiatric diseases. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate serum vitamin D level in pediatric ADHD patients.
METHODS:
A total of 60 ADHD patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. The age of both groups was in the 7-18-year-old range. Serum 25-OH-vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were investigated.
RESULTS:
Serum 25-OH-vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in children and adolescents with ADHD compared to healthy controls, and no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of other variables. 25-OH-vitamin D level in the ADHD group and control group was, respectively, 20.9 ± 19.4 ng/mL and 34.9 ± 15.4 ng/mL (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION:
There is an association between lower 25-OH-vitamin D concentration and ADHD in childhood and adolescence. To the authors' knowledge this is the first study to investigate the relationship between vitamin D and ADHD in children.

© 2014 Japan Pediatric Society. PMID: 24417979 DOI: 10.1111/ped.12286


ADHD decreased 11% for every 4 ng higher level of vitamin D in cord at birth - 2016

Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 30. pii: 0004867416670013. [Epub ahead of print]
Mossin MH1, Aaby JB1, Dalgård C2, Lykkedegn S3, Christesen HT3, Bilenberg N4.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5.

METHOD: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression.

RESULTS: The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L (p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L (p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D.

CONCLUSION: An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.

PMID: 27694636 DOI: 10.1177/0004867416670013


PubMed - Nov 2017 Omega-3 appears to treat ADHD

Note: Omega-3 test is low cost and can be done at home


Autism treated by Vitamin D: Dr. Cannell - video June 2013

includes many reasons why he believes Autism is related to Vitamin D

  1. Both have strong inheritance features – Vitamin D about 60%
  2. Both have gotten substantially worse in last 30 years
  3. Vitamin D is known to be involved in brain development
  4. All autistic children are VitD deficient, but not all children who are deficient are autistic: genes are involved
  5. When giving vitamin D to cure children of rickets “mental dullness” decreases as well
  6. Children with genes which give them too much (Williams Syndrome) have to reverse of autism – too sociable
  7. Mothers having lots of fish (and thus more vitamin D) give birth to kids with less autistic symptoms
  8. Both associated with weak bones
  9. Both worse around the age of weaning
  10. Autism is more common in rich families – more likely to apply sun screen and stay indoors
  11. Autism increases with drugs which lower levels of vitamin D
  12. Seizures are common with Autism - Vitamin D has been shown to reduce seizures
  13. Fewer autistic symptoms (such as sleep problems) during summer: when child gets more vitamin D from the sun
  14. Both worse with latitude
  15. Both vary with Ultraviolet light
  16. Both vary with time of year (more birth of autistics in March in Northern hemisphere)
  17. 2X more urban autism – less UVB in urban environments
  18. Both worse with pollution
  19. Both worse with increased clouds and rain
  20. Both worse with closely spaced pregnancies
  21. Autistics have abnormal immune response – similar to that of vitamin D deficiency
  22. Low levels of vitamin D in mother animals reduces brain function in offspring
  23. Vitamin deficient rat pups have similar brain abnormalities to that of human autistic children
  24. Autistic children get less vitamin D in their blood for the same amount of sun exposure
  25. The 4 males/1 female ratio - Note estrogen increases vitamin D in the brain (testosterone does not)
  26. Both worse in African Americans (A-A 2-3 increased autism rate)
  27. Both worse in Dark-skinned immigrants in Europe

Brainplasticity software has shown nice improvment in some ADHD symptoms - 2016

  • Positive Study Results on Software to Address ADHD Symptoms BrainHQ
    " The brain exercise group significantly improved, as compared to the control, on both the response inhibition measure and Stroop interference, a measure of executive function. A trend toward improvement, which did not reach significance, was noted on the two other secondary measures: sustained attention and short-term memory span"

Note: The Founder of VitaminDWiki has been enjoying the great benefits of BrainHQ since about 2005

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
9145 ADHD celebs.jpg admin 06 Jan, 2018 22:37 88.67 Kb 109
9073 ADHD very preterm.pdf PDF 2017 admin 31 Dec, 2017 10:45 1.44 Mb 5
9072 ADHD sunshine explain 40% Researchgate.pdf admin 31 Dec, 2017 10:20 499.06 Kb 5
9071 ADHD preg 57 nmol.pdf PDF 2017 admin 31 Dec, 2017 10:05 897.71 Kb 5
9070 ADHD table.jpg admin 31 Dec, 2017 02:08 48.50 Kb 192
9069 ADHD 4 venn.jpg admin 31 Dec, 2017 02:08 61.16 Kb 182
9068 ADHD 5 venn.jpg admin 31 Dec, 2017 02:07 46.13 Kb 184
9067 ADHD 6 venn.jpg admin 31 Dec, 2017 02:07 36.76 Kb 180
9066 Autism and ADHS venn.jpg admin 31 Dec, 2017 02:06 28.43 Kb 183
7901 ADHD T1.jpg admin 09 Apr, 2017 15:24 78.15 Kb 3490
7900 Omega-3 ADHD.pdf PDF 2016 admin 09 Apr, 2017 15:19 439.54 Kb 144
6528 ADHD Zinc Omega-3.pdf PDF 2016 admin 06 Apr, 2016 13:05 671.83 Kb 579
6524 ADHD 2015.pdf admin 05 Apr, 2016 00:40 200.88 Kb 566
4824 Predict ADHD.pdf PDF 2013 admin 06 Jan, 2015 16:39 188.52 Kb 1215
3393 ADHD adults.jpg admin 14 Dec, 2013 21:38 29.89 Kb 17720
3350 ADHD Spectracell.png admin 05 Dec, 2013 12:34 236.10 Kb 51173
3349 Ritalin in UK.jpg admin 05 Dec, 2013 12:30 30.98 Kb 18656
3348 ADHD prescriptions.jpg admin 05 Dec, 2013 12:30 78.82 Kb 26872
405 ADD_Study.pdf ADDitude Mag admin 14 Jan, 2011 12:15 268.02 Kb 2721
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