- ADHD = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Wikipedia
- ADHD children have much lower levels of vitamin D
- Less sun is associated with more ADHD (season and latitude)
- The ADHD rate has increased a lot in past few decades - especially for adults
- Vitamin D levels have dropped a lot in the past few decades
- There are many positive observational studies of Vitamin D and ADHD
- Magnesium and Omega-3 are also suspected in ADHD
(More ADHD info below)
Learn how Vitamin D is essential for good health
Watch a 5 minute video "Does Less Sun Mean more Disease?"
Browse for other Health Problems and D in left column or here
see also Supplementing and More in the menu at the top of very page
- ADHD 2 X more likely if Tylenol used a lot during pregnancy (Autism increased too) – Dec 2016
- ADHD reduced by Omega-3 in trials either using high doses or over long term – July 2016
- ADHD children had 21 ng of vitamin D (control = 35 ng) – Jan 2014
- ADHD 2 times more likely if poor Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio – meta-analysis May 2016
- See also VitaminDWiki
- Less sun ==> more ADHD (March 2013)
- ADHD children have low vitamin D levels (19 vs 29 ng) 2015
- ADHD children taking methylphenidate or amphetamine for more than 6 months have bone loss - April 2016
- For every 10 ng more vitamin D during pregnancy 11% less likely for child to have ADHD symptoms - July 2015
- 11% decrease in ADHD for each 4 ng increase in cord Vitamin D level - 2016
- See web
- ADHD prescriptions in US
- ADHD prescription by young adults up 220% in a decade
- Ritalin in UK
- ADHD Chart of possible reasons (vitamin D not mentioned)
- Magnesium and mental illness chart
- ADHD helped by combination of Omega-3 and Zinc - 2016
- Half of ADHD children treated by Omega-3 RCT 2009
- ADHD 21 ng, normals 33 ng - June 2014
- AHDH decreased 11% for every 4 ng higher level of vitamin D in cord at birth - 2016
ADHD 2 X more likely if Tylenol used a lot during pregnancy (Autism increased too) – Dec 2016
ADHD reduced by Omega-3 in trials either using high doses or over long term – July 2016
Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 Jul 26;12:1869-82. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S68652. eCollection 2016.
Königs A1, Kiliaan AJ1.Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition & Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients' blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as "ADHD" and "ω-3/6 PUFA" and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported.
In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication.
PMID: 27555775 PMCID: PMC4968854 DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S68652
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
ADHD children had 21 ng of vitamin D (control = 35 ng) – Jan 2014
Vitamin D Status in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Pediatr Int. 2014 Jan 13. doi: 10.1111/ped.12286.
Goksugur SB, Tufan AE, Semiz M, Gunes C, Bekdas M, Tosun M, Demircioglu F.
Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of the childhood is an early onset, affecting 2-18 % of the children worldwide. Etiopathogenesis of ADHD is obscure. In recent studies, low levels of vitamin D are found in association with many disorders as well as in neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate serum vitamin D levels in pediatric ADHD patients.
METHODS: A total of 60 ADHD patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Ages of the both groups were in 7 and 18 years old range. Serum levels of 25-OH-Vitamin D, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were investigated.
RESULTS: Serum levels of 25-OH-vitamin D were found to be significantly lower in children and adolescents with ADHD compared to healthy controls and no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of other variables. 25-OH-vitamin D level in ADHD group and control group was respectively; 20.9±19.4 ng/mL and 34.9±15.4 ng/mL (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that there is an association between lower 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations and ADHD in childhood and adolescence. Up to our knowledge this is the first study that investigate the relationship between vitamin D and ADHD in children.
PMID: 24417979 patients/caregivers can buy a copy of the study from the publisher for just $3.50
ADHD 2 times more likely if poor Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio – meta-analysis May 2016
See also VitaminDWiki
- ADHD decreased by 11% for each 10 ng increase in vitamin D in early pregnancy – April 2015
- Psych meds used by 1 in 13 U.S. schoolkids (wonder about interaction with vitamin D) – April 2014
- Psychiatric problems such as ADHD treated with vitamin D – March 2010
- VitaminDWiki Category Magnesium
- Search VitaminDWiki for hyperactivity OR "attention deficit" 221 items as of April 2017
(Note: Did not search for ADHD, as ADHD is on the left of every page in VitaminDWiki)
- Autism and Vitamin D studies
- Autism and vitamin D many articles on and off VitaminDWiki
- Deficiencies of Vitamin D, Iron, Magnesium, and Zinc all associated with ADHD – Sept 2014
- ADHD in Arab countries – vitamin D is the only changeable risk factor – review April 2015
- Licorice while pregnant reduced cortisol to fetus, increasing the risk of ADD by 3X, etc – Feb 2017
Less sun ==> more ADHD (March 2013)
Geographic Variation in the Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Sunny Perspective
Biological Psychiatry, doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.010
Martijn Arns email address; Kristiaan B. van der Heijden, L. Eugene Arnold. J. Leon Kenemans
Received 6 December 2012; received in revised form 19 February 2013; accepted 19 February 2013. published online 25 March 2013.
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood, with average worldwide prevalence of 5.3%, varying by region.
Methods: We assessed the relationship between the prevalence of ADHD and solar intensity (SI) (kilowatt hours/square meters/day) on the basis of multinational and cross-state studies. Prevalence data for the U.S. were based on self-report of professional diagnoses; prevalence data for the other countries were based on diagnostic assessment. The SI data were obtained from national institutes.
Results: In three datasets (across 49 U.S. states for 2003 and 2007, and across 9 non-U.S. countries) a relationship between SI and the prevalence of ADHD was found, explaining 34%–57% of the variance in ADHD prevalence, with high SI having an apparent preventative effect. Controlling for low birth weight, infant mortality, average income (socioeconomic status), latitude, and other relevant factors did not change these findings. Furthermore, these findings were specific to ADHD, not found for the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders or major depressive disorder.
Conclusions: In this study we found a lower prevalence of ADHD in areas with high SI for both U.S. and non-U.S. data. This association has not been reported before in the literature.
The preventative effect of high SI might be related to an improvement of circadian clock disturbances, which have recently been associated with ADHD. These findings likely apply to a substantial subgroup of ADHD patients and have major implications in our understanding of the etiology and possibly prevention of ADHD by medical professionals, schools, parents, and manufacturers of mobile devices.
ADHD children have low vitamin D levels (19 vs 29 ng) 2015
The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Level and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Fall;9(4):48-53.
Sharif MR1, Madani M2, Tabatabaei F3, Tabatabaee Z4.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental health disorders. In recent years, the impacts of various micronutrients on ADHD have been studied. However, vitamin D has received much less attention. This study was aimed at evaluating the association and level of serum vitamin D in children with ADHD.
MATERIALS & METHODS:
This case-control study was carried out, in 2012, on 6 to 12 yr-old children. Thirty-seven were children with ADHD in the cases group and another 37 healthy children were in the control group. Venous blood sample was drawn from each child to measure the serum level of vitamin D. Other variables were compared as well.
The mean serum vitamin D level of children with ADHD (19.11±10.10 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that of the control group (28.67±13.76 ng/ml) (P<0.001).
Deficiency of vitamin D has been proved in various psychiatric diseases.
This study evidenced a significantly low level of serum vitamin D in children with ADHD.
This suggests the need for regularly monitoring of serum vitamin D levels and treatment of patients with vitamin D deficiencies.
Intervention with vitamin D alleviated signs of ADHD - mentioned in PDF
In an interventional study on 80 patients with ADHD above the age of 16 in New Zealand, reported 27% prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency.
Using vitamin D supplement for eight weeks was found to be effective in alleviating the signs of the disease
ADHD children taking methylphenidate or amphetamine for more than 6 months have bone loss - April 2016
The study recommends taking Calcium and Vitamin D to minimize bone loss
VitaminDWiki recommend taking Vitamin D in the first place and avoliding ADHD
For every 10 ng more vitamin D during pregnancy 11% less likely for child to have ADHD symptoms - July 2015
Vitamin D in Pregnancy and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-like Symptoms in Childhood.
Epidemiology. 2015 Jul;26(4):458-65. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000292.
Morales E1, Julvez J, Torrent M, Ballester F, Rodríguez-Bernal CL, Andiarena A, Vegas O, Castilla AM, Rodriguez-Dehli C, Tardón A, Sunyer J.
BACKGROUND:Vitamin D status during prenatal brain development may influence risk of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. However, there are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis. We aimed to examine whether maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with risk of ADHD-like symptoms in offspring.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective study analyzing data from 1,650 mother-child pairs from five birth cohorts embedded in the INMA Project (Spain, 1997-2008). Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy was estimated by measuring plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] at 13 weeks of gestation. Children were assessed by teachers for ADHD-like symptoms at ages 4-5 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ADHD form list.
RESULTS: After adjustment, the number of total ADHD-like symptoms in children decreased by 11% per 10 ng/ml increment of maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80, 0.98). Similarly, the number of symptoms in the ADHD subscales decreased in relation to higher maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (IRR per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.99 for the inattention scale; and IRR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.99 for the hyperactivity-impulsivity scale). Using diagnostic criteria, we found an association of increasing maternal 25(OH)D3 with a lower risk of ADHD DSM-IV (relative risk ratio per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.72, 1.06) and ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder (relative risk ratio = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.49, 1.04) in children.
CONCLUSION: Higher maternal circulating levels of 25(OH)D3 in pregnancy are associated with lower risk of developing ADHD-like symptoms in childhood.
11% decrease in ADHD for each 4 ng increase in cord Vitamin D level - 2016
Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study
Aust N Z J Psychiatry September 30, 2016 0004867416670013
Mats H Mossin1, Jens B Aaby1, Christine Dalgård2, Sine Lykkedegn1,3, Henrik T Christesen1,3; Niels Bilenberg1,4⇑
1Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
2Research Unit of Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
3Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense, Denmark
4Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Odense, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Niels Bilenberg, Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Odense, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, University of Southern Denmark, Sdr. Boulevard 29, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Email: niels.bilenberg at rsyd.dk
Objective: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5–5.
Method: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5–5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist–based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression.
Results The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5–127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L (p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L (p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist–based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D.
Conclusion: An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.
Fewer indications of ADHD in children whose mothers took vitamin D during pregnancy Oct 2016 - report on the study
- ADHD associated with both low vitamin D and low iron Sept 2014
full free text online. Note: iron deficiency is associated with low vitamin D in many other diseases
- ADHD and Vitamin D Deficiency June 2014
ADHD = 17 ng of vitamin D, controls = 26 ng
- Might be able to predict ADHD based on Low vitamin D levels Nov 2013
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki.
- Predict attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Evidence -based medicine Nov 2013
household income, poor relationship between parents, mothers' occupation, consanguinity, BMI in percentiles, low duration of time under sun light, physical activity, low serum calcium level and low vitamin D level were considered as the main risk factors associated with the ADHD
- Iron and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: What is the empirical evidence so far? A systematic review of the literature. 2012
- More Sunshine Tied to Fewer Cases of ADHD Psych Central review of the study
The study ruled out several other possible explanations for the geographic variability including low birth weight, infant mortality levels, socioeconomic differences and latitude.
Arns said that vitamin D levels are an unlikely explanation for the results, since another recent large study showed no relationship between the vitamin and behavioral problems in children.
- Sunlight exposure correlates to a reduced risk of ADHD Sunlight Institute discussion of this study - Oct 2013
- More Diagnoses of A.D.H.D. in New C.D.C. Data NY Times March 2013
6.4 million children ages 4 through 17 had received an A.D.H.D. diagnosis at some point in their lives
a 53 % rise in the past decade
- Significant Increase in ADHD Over Last 9 Years Psych Central on Kaiser Report, 2013
24 % between 2001 and 2010. Black children had a 70% relative increase in ADHD incidence
- ADHD linked with 2 Vitamin & Mineral Deficiencies July 2010
ADHD linked to low level of Magnesium AND low vitamin D
- Magnesium Decreases Hyperactivity in ADHD Children Nov 2016
- Vitamin D and other deficiencies can be mistaken for ADHD short article which refers to book
- Psychiatric insanity: Over 20% of young boys labeled 'ADHD' Natural News Dec 2013
20% labeled ADHD sometime in their life, which is an increase of 42% from 2003 to 2011
- Wide Global Variation in ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment Medscape May 2011 - A global increase in ADHD, not just US
. . the prevalence of ADHD varies across nations but that most of this difference is due to disparate diagnostic practices and algorithms.
. . a meta-analysis indicated that differences in prevalence are largely attributable to methodologic differences in the studies themselves rather than cultural or national factors.
China . . . use of methylphenidate medication is difficult because the government-run health system mandates that any prescriptions be given for a maximum of only 2 weeks
CLICK HERE for full study
- Is It Alzheimer’s, or A.D.H.D.? New York Times Sept 2015
3 % of Dutch over 60 have A.D.H. D. It overlaps with age-related cognitive decline
Note by VitaminDWiki - both are associated with and probably prevented and treated with vitamin D
- The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder NY Times Dec 2013, show adult ADHD increasing faster than child
ADHD prescriptions in US
ADHD prescription by young adults up 220% in a decade
88% in 4 years by those in age range 26-34 NY Times March 2014
Ritalin in UK
ADHD Chart of possible reasons (vitamin D not mentioned)
Magnesium and mental illness chart
Which is in Overview Magnesium and vitamin D
ADHD helped by combination of Omega-3 and Zinc - 2016
Half of ADHD children treated by Omega-3 RCT 2009
Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents
Journal of Attention Disorders March 2009 vol. 12 no. 5 394-401
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8—18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD Rating Scale—IV and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale were outcome measures. Results: A majority did not respond to omega 3/6 treatment.
However, a subgroup of 26% responded with more than 25% reduction of ADHD symptoms and a drop of CGI scores to the near-normal range.
After 6 months, 47% of all showed such improvement. Responders tended to have ADHD inattentive subtype and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders.
Conclusion: A subgroup of children and adolescents with ADHD, characterized by inattention and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, treated with omega 3/6 fatty acids for 6 months responded with meaningful reduction of ADHD symptoms. (J. of Att. Dis. 2009; 12(5) 394-401)
ADHD 21 ng, normals 33 ng - June 2014
Vitamin D status in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
Pediatr Int. 2014 Aug;56(4):515-9. doi: 10.1111/ped.12286. Epub 2014 Jun 17.
Goksugur SB1, Tufan AE, Semiz M, Gunes C, Bekdas M, Tosun M, Demircioglu F.
1Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.
Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood, has an early onset, affecting 2-18% of children worldwide. The etiopathogenesis of ADHD is obscure. In recent studies, a low level of vitamin D has been found in association with many disorders as well as in neuropsychiatric diseases. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate serum vitamin D level in pediatric ADHD patients.
A total of 60 ADHD patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. The age of both groups was in the 7-18-year-old range. Serum 25-OH-vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were investigated.
Serum 25-OH-vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in children and adolescents with ADHD compared to healthy controls, and no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of other variables. 25-OH-vitamin D level in the ADHD group and control group was, respectively, 20.9 ± 19.4 ng/mL and 34.9 ± 15.4 ng/mL (P = 0.001).
There is an association between lower 25-OH-vitamin D concentration and ADHD in childhood and adolescence. To the authors' knowledge this is the first study to investigate the relationship between vitamin D and ADHD in children.
© 2014 Japan Pediatric Society. PMID: 24417979 DOI: 10.1111/ped.12286
AHDH decreased 11% for every 4 ng higher level of vitamin D in cord at birth - 2016
Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 30. pii: 0004867416670013. [Epub ahead of print]
Mossin MH1, Aaby JB1, Dalgård C2, Lykkedegn S3, Christesen HT3, Bilenberg N4.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5.
METHOD: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression.
RESULTS: The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L (p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L (p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D.
CONCLUSION: An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.
PMID: 27694636 DOI: 10.1177/0004867416670013This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)Pregnancy
544 Infant-Child 376 Vitamin D and Omega-3 138
ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads 7901 ADHD T1.jpg admin 09 Apr, 2017 15:24 78.15 Kb 2219 7900 Omega-3 ADHD.pdf PDF 2016 admin 09 Apr, 2017 15:19 439.54 Kb 109 6528 ADHD Zinc Omega-3.pdf PDF 2016 admin 06 Apr, 2016 13:05 671.83 Kb 544 6524 ADHD 2015.pdf admin 05 Apr, 2016 00:40 200.88 Kb 525 4824 Predict ADHD.pdf PDF 2013 admin 06 Jan, 2015 16:39 188.52 Kb 1177 3393 ADHD adults.jpg admin 14 Dec, 2013 21:38 29.89 Kb 16696 3350 ADHD Spectracell.png admin 05 Dec, 2013 12:34 236.10 Kb 48873 3349 Ritalin in UK.jpg admin 05 Dec, 2013 12:30 30.98 Kb 17516 3348 ADHD prescriptions.jpg admin 05 Dec, 2013 12:30 78.82 Kb 25199 405 ADD_Study.pdf ADDitude Mag admin 14 Jan, 2011 12:15 268.02 Kb 2660
- Search VitaminDWiki for hyperactivity OR "attention deficit" 221 items as of April 2017