Vitamin D and gallstone disease-A population-based study.
Endocrine. 2016 Dec;54(3):818-825. doi: 10.1007/s12020-016-1113-4. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
Health problems are related to birth month - June 2015 has many charts, such as
Shabanzadeh DM1,2, Jørgensen T3,4,5, Linneberg A3,6,7, Sørensen LT8,6, Skaaby T3.
- 1 Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. daniel.moensted.shabanzadeh.01 at regionh.dk.
- 2 Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. daniel.moensted.shabanzadeh.01 at regionh.dk.
- 3 Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 4 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 5 The Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
- 6 Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 7 Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark.
- 8 Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in the general population and is a major gastrointestinal cause of hospital admissions. The objectives were to determine whether circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were associated to ultrasound proven gallstones or cholecystectomy in a general population sample. Determinants of vitamin D status were also explored. A random sample of 4130 people from the population of Copenhagen with ages 41-71 years were invited (N = 4130) and 2650 participants were included. Ultrasound examinations were performed to assess gallstone status and blood samples were drawn to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biomarkers of renal and hepatic function. Gallstone disease was found in 422 participants. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly associated with gallstone disease.
Time of birth during low vitamin D exposure was associated with gallstone disease (gallstone prevalence 18.0 versus 14.4 %, odds ratio 1.33, 95 % confidence interval [1.07; 1.65]). Highest quartile of cystatin C was significantly associated with gallstone disease (gallstone prevalence 22.1 versus 12.0 %, odds ratio 1.53, 95 % confidence interval [1.08; 2.18]). Serum levels of creatinine and alanine amino transferase were not associated with gallstone disease. Sensitivity analyses excluding participants with cholecystectomy did not alter results significantly. No association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and gallstone disease was identified. Findings suggest gallstones to be associated to low vitamin D exposure in utero and to renal failure suggesting that vitamin D might have an impact on gallstone disease. Future studies should explore associations for vitamin D and gallstone disease prospectively.
PMID: 27696253 DOI: 10.1007/s12020-016-1113-4