Food-based solutions for vitamin D deficiency: putting policy into practice and the key role for research
Proceedings of Nutrition Society, Volume 76, Issue 1 February 2017 , pp. 54-63, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665116000756
Aoife Hayes (a1) and Kevin D. Cashman (a1) (a2)
- 200 IU per 100 gram of egg yoke when add vitamin D to poultry feed in Europe – Aug 2011
- Feed chicken lots of vitamin D, get 6000 IU per egg with no change in production – Nov 2013
- Omega-3 from biofortified eggs is practical (and great for health) – Nov 2015
- Add vitamin D to animal feed to fortify the resulting human food – Oct 2012
Rarely permitted anywhere around the world
- "The achieved vitamin D3 content of egg yolk (μg/100 g) reported from published studies of the effect of different vitamin D and/or 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation in laying hen feeds. The first number in parenthesis in the X-axis denotes the study from which these data are derived as follows: (1) Mattila et al.(49) ; (2) Mattila et al. (50) ; (3) Mattila et al.(51); (4) Mattila et al.(52); (5) Yao et al. (53); (6) Browning & Cowieson(54) ; (7) Hayes et al. (55) . Blue bars indicate where additions adhered to EU upper allowable levels; red bars indicate where additions exceeded EU upper allowable levels."
Recent re-evaluations of dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin D have established intake requirements between 10 and 20 µg/d. National nutrition surveys indicate that habitual mean intakes of vitamin D in the population are typically in the range 3–7 µg/d. As vitamin D supplementation will not be effective at a population level because the uptake is generally low, creative food-based solutions are needed to bridge the gap between current intakes and these new requirement values. The overarching aim of this review is to highlight how food-based solutions can have an important role in bridging this gap and counteracting vitamin D inadequacy in Europe and elsewhere. The present review initially briefly overviews very recent new European DRV for vitamin D and, while not in agreement on requirement estimates, how they point very clearly to the need for food-based solutions. The review discusses the need for traditional fortification of foods in the dairy and other sectors, and finally overviews recent advances in the area of biofortification of food with vitamin D.
In conclusion, increasing vitamin D intakes across the population distribution is important from a public health perspective to reduce the high degree of inadequacy of vitamin D intake in Europe. Fortification, including biofortification, of a wider range of foods, which accommodate diversity, is likely to have the potential to increase vitamin D intakes across the population distribution. Research has had, and will continue to have, a key role in terms of developing food-based solutions and tackling vitamin D deficiency.