Synergistic effect of low K and D vitamin status on arterial stiffness in a general population.
J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Aug;46:83-89. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.04.010. Epub 2017 Apr 22.
Mayer O Jr1, Seidlerová J2, Wohlfahrt P3, Filipovský J2, Cífková R3, Černá V4, Kučerová A4, Pešta M4, Fuchsová R5, Topolčan O5, Jardon KMC6, Drummen NEA6, Vermeer C 6.
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Both vitamins K and D are nutrients with pleiotropic functions in human tissues. The metabolic role of these vitamins overlaps considerably in calcium homeostasis. We analyzed their potential synergetic effect on arterial stiffness. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) in 1023 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix γ-carboxyglutamate protein (dp-ucMGP), a biomarker of vitamin K status, was measured by sandwich ELISA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) by a commercial immunochemical assay. In a subsample of 431 subjects without chronic disease or pharmacotherapy, we detected rs2228570 polymorphism for the vitamin D receptor.
After adjustment for confounders, aPWV was independently associated with both factors: dp-ucMGP [β-coefficient(S.E.M.)=13.91(4.87); P=.004] and 25-OH-D3 [0.624(0.28); P=.027]. In a further analysis, we divided subjects according to dp-ucMGP and 25-OH-D3 quartiles, resulting in 16 subgroups.
The highest aPWV had subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP plus bottom quartile of 25-OH-D3 (i.e., in those with insufficient status of both vitamin K and vitamin D), while the lowest aPVW had subjects in the bottom quartile of dp-ucMGP plus top quartile of 25-OH-D3 [9.8 (SD2.6) versus 6.6 (SD1.6) m/s; P<.0001].
When we compared these extreme groups of vitamin K and D status, the adjusted odds ratio for aPWV≥9.3 m/s was 6.83 (95% CI:1.95-20.9). The aPWV was also significantly higher among subjects bearing the GG genotype of rs2228570, but only in those with a concomitantly poor vitamin K status. In conclusion, we confirmed substantial interaction of insufficient K and D vitamin status in terms of increased aortic stiffness.
PMID: 28486172 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.04.010
Blood flowed 50% faster if high Vit D & Vit K (D)
vs low Vit D & Vit K (A)