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Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc


See also VitaminDWiki

It may be more important to test Vit. D Receptor than to test Vit. D blood level

Items in both categories Pregnancy and VDR are listed here:

Vitamin D Receptor category has the following

189 items in Vitamin D Receptor category

Vitamin D tests cannot detect Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) problems
A poor VDR restricts Vitamin D from getting in the cells

A poor VDR increases the risk of 37 health problems  click here for details

VDR at-home test $29 - results not easily understood in 2016
There are hints that you may have inherited a poor VDR
You can compensate for poor VDR by increasing one or more of the following:

1) Vitamin D supplement
  Sun, Ultraviolet -B
Vitamin D in the blood
and thus to the cells
2) MagnesiumVitamin D in the blood
 AND to the cells
3) Omega-3 Vitamin D to the cells
4) Resveratrol Vitamin D to the cells
5) Intense exercise Vitamin D Receptor
6) Get prescription for VDR activator
   paricalcitol, maxacalcitol?
Vitamin D Receptor
7) Quercetin (flavonoid) Vitamin D Receptor

Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT*
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT*
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT*
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT*
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT*
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT*
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT*
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT*

See other supplements and pregnancy

Assumes $50,000 per premature birth which occure in 10% of pregnancies

% reduction
Net savings
per birth
After subtract
tester costs
# needed
to treat
Cost of
each test
Cost of
all tests
Net savings after
subtract tester costs
Hypothetically perfect100%$5,00010---
Vitamin D 50%$2,40020$100
(2 tests)
Iodine 10%$420100$80$8,000$42,000
Omega-3 15% $75067 nonegive without
Vitamin C
reduces early rupture
15%$75067nonegive without

See Folic Acid in VitaminDWiki

See also preterm birth in VitaminDWiki

See also miscarriage in VitaminDWiki

VDR, spontaneous preterm birth and gestational diabetes– Feb 2018

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are associated to spontaneous preterm birth and maternal aspects
Gene, Volume 642, 5 February 2018, Pages 58–63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2017.10.087
N. Javorskia, b, C.A.D. Limaa, b, L.V.C. Silvac, S. Crovellaa, b, J. de Azêvedo Silvaa, b, ,

  • This is a new report relating polymorphisms within VDR gene and prematurity's outcomes.
  • Herein we correlate clinical characteristics and spontaneous preterm birth, according to the maternal VDR genotype.
  • Detection of direct relationship between VDR recessive genotype and specific clinical aspects in women with SPTB.

Preterm birth (PTB) is featured by less than 37 weeks of gestational age or fewer than 259 days since the first day from the last menstrual period. Complications of PTB are the major cause of neonatal deaths, several factors are linked to PTB increased risk including immunological and genetics. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune response modulation and its action occurs through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which recently has been described as overexpressed in human placenta during the pregnancy. Herein we assessed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI (rs2228570 A > G) and Cdx-2 (rs11568820 T > C), within VDR, using TaqMan fluorogenic probes, and differential susceptibility to SPTB.
We assessed 104 pregnant women with SPTB and 85 women with normal birth in a Northeastern Brazilian population. Statistically significant differences for both SNPs where found when comparing allele and genotype frequencies in both groups: the T allele for rs2228570 and A allele for rs11568820 were significantly more frequent in SPTB group than in normal birth group (p = 0.000013 and p = 0.00466, respectively).
The rs11568820 A/A genotype was associated to clinical/demographic variables such as:

  • premature birth (p = 0.007),
  • neonate weight (p = 0.039),
  • presence of infection during pregnancy (p = 0.011) and
  • premature birth among multiparous (p = 0.015).

The rs2228570 T/T genotype associated with

  • gestational diabetes mellitus (p = 0.044) and
  • chorioamnionitis during pregnancy (p = 0.043).

In conclusion our findings indicate an association between polymorphisms FokI and Cdx-2 within VDR gene and SPTB, suggesting their involvement in the triggering of these syndromes.

PTB, Preterm birth; SPTB, Spontaneous preterm birth; PROM, Premature rupture of membranes; GDM, Gestational diabetes mellitus; VDR, Vitamin D receptor; TNF, Tumor necrosis factor; IL, interleukin; OR, Odds ratio; CI, Confidence interval
Publisher wants $36 for the PDF

 Download accepted manuscript PDF from SciHub VitaminDWiki

Preterm birth 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor, 9 X if also had previous miscarriage – June 2017

Maternal-fetal vitamin D receptor polymorphisms significantly associated with preterm birth.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017 Jun 13. doi: 10.1007/s00404-017-4412-y. [Epub ahead of print]
Rosenfeld T1,2, Salem H1, Altarescu G2, Grisaru-Granovsky S2, Tevet A2, Birk R3.
1 Department of Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
2 Genetics Unit and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
3 Department of Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel. ruthb at ariel.ac.il.

Preterm birth (PTB) is a complex trait with strong genetic background, whose etiology is not fully understood. It was recently suggested that pregnancy duration is affected by fetal genetic variation even more than by the maternal genome. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in embryonic implantation and fertility. We studied the association between both maternal and neonatal vitamin D receptor (VDR) genetic variation and PTB.

Maternal and fetal (umbilical cord) DNA was isolated from Jewish Israeli idiopathic preterm newborns (24-36 weeks, n = 146) and control term newborns (>37 weeks, n = 229). Maternal and fetal VDR polymorphisms (FokI, ApaI, BsmI, TaqI) were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Using SPSS analysis to correlate VDR genotypes with phenotypic variation: pregnancy duration, preterm birth and spontaneous miscarriages, adjusted for gravidity, parity and gender of newborn.

Women homozygous to VDR ApaI (AA) genotype had significant twofold increase risk for PTB [OR 1.973, (CI) 1.183-3.289, p = 0.009] compared to heterozygous women. Male newborns had significant (p < 0.05) 1.73-fold increase of PTB. Women with history of previous (≥1) spontaneous miscarriage had a significant increased risk for PTB if their newborn carried either of the VDR BsmI homozygous (BB or bb) genotypes compared to the heterozygous (Bb) genotype [OR 6.857, (CI) 1.273-36.934, p = 0.018 and OR 9.231, (CI) 1.753-48.618, p = 0.008, respectively], or VDR ApaI homozygous (AA or aa) genotype compared to heterozygous (Aa) genotype [OR 4.33, (CI) 1.029-18.257, p = 0.046 and OR 7.2, (CI) 1.34-38.917, p = 0.021, respectively].

We show association between maternal and fetal VDR genotype variants with PTB.

PMID: 28612095 DOI: 10.1007/s00404-017-4412-y
Publisher wants $40 for the PDF

Preterm Birth 3.3X as likely if poor VDR – Aug 2016

Relationship between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and preterm birth. [Article in Chinese]
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016 Aug 20;36(9):1276-1280.
Cai W1, Shen XY, Zhu BP, Pan SL.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms at Fok I site and the risk of preterm birth for potential intervention of of preterm birth or threatened premature delivery.

METHODS: Fifty-seven women with preterm birth and 84 with full-term birth were included in this analysis. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to identify VDR gene Fok I genotypes.

RESULTS: No significant difference was found in age, D-dimer (DDI), fibrinogen (Fg), serum calcium (Ca2+), leukocyte count or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between the women in the preterm and full-term birth groups (P>0.05). The two groups differed significantly in the distribution of VDR gene Fok I site genotypes and allele frequency of F/F (P<0.05).The frequency of FF genotype was significantly higher in the preterm group than in the full-term group. Compared with Ff and ff genotypes, FF genotype was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (χ2=9.701, P=9.701, OR=3.320, 95% CI [1.560, 7.066]). In the preterm group, the maternal age, DDI, Fg, serum Ca2+, leukocyte count or HbA1c did not differ significantly between the genotypes (P>0.05).

CONCLUSION: VDR gene Fok I site genotypes are related with preterm birth, and the FF genotype may serve as a potential risk factor for preterm birth.

PMID: 27687664

Preterm birth 34 X more likely if have worst VDR combination - Dec 2016

Influence of Apa1 (rs7975232), Taq1 (rs731236) and Bsm1 (rs154410) polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor on preterm birth risk in the Polish population.
Ginekol Pol. 2016;87(11):763-768. doi: 10.5603/GP.2016.0084.
Baczyńska-Strzecha M1, Kalinka J.
1Department of Perinatology, 1st Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University in Lodz, Poland. m.baczynska at onet.eu.

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in the placenta and tissues related to the immune system occurrence of various variants of VDR may modify the effects of vitamin D on pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the parturients' Apa1, Taq1, and Bsm1 polymorphisms of the VDR and their combinations and the risk of preterm birth in the Polish population.

Determination of polymorphism for VDR was assayed using the RT-PCR method. 199 Caucasian women at childbirth were qualified:100 patients who had a spontaneous preterm birth and 99 patients who had a term birth.

Three separate genotypes of the Apa1, Taq1, and Bsm1 polymorphisms were detected. No significant differences in the frequency of particular genotypes in the compared groups were found. Some of the genotype combinations were significantly more frequent in the preterm group - the bb/AA/TT genotype (28.0% vs. 10.1%; p = 0.0013) and the BB/aa/tt genotype (14.0% vs. 4.04% p = 0.0277). The Bb/AA/Tt and the BB/Aa/tt genotypes were found only in the control group (16.1% and 7.0% of patients, respectively). The bb/aa/TT was significantly more frequent in the control group (2.0% vs. 11.1%; p = 0,0207).
Two genotype combinations reduced the risk of preterm birth - the

  • Bb/AA/Tt genotype by 94% (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.002-0.885, p = 0.041) and the
  • BB/Aa/tt genotype by 98% (OR = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.001-0.838, p = 0.039).

Our result suggests that there may be a relationship between certain VDR genotype combinations and the risk of preterm birth. Further research is needed in order to substantiate this finding.

Preterm Birth twice as likely if poor VDR – Sept 2017

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research / academic sciences, Vol 10, Issue 9, 2017
department of Biochemistry, Shri A. N. Patel PG Institute, Sardar Patel University, Anand - 388 001, Gujarat, India. department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Akanksha Hospital & Research Institute, Anand - 387 310, Gujarat, India. Email: hvphitesh at rediffmail.com

Objective: Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of high infant mortality and long-term disability in young children worldwide. Array of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes linked with vitamin D level and its associated vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. We undertook this study to investigate the association between VDR gene polymorphism with vitamin D deficiency and PTB in West Indian pregnant women.

Methods: A total of 72 women with PTB and 138 healthy mothers with uncomplicated normal delivery were selected from different regions of Gujarat, India. FokI and TaqI single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of VDR gene determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Vitamin D level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Result: ff genotype (29.17% vs. 10.87%, p=0.002) and f allele (49.31% vs. 35.51%, p=0.006) frequency distributions of VDR FokI showed significantly (odds ratio=0.566, 95% confidence interval=0.368-0.870, p=0.006) higher in women with preterm delivery than in control full term group. Genotype frequency of VDR TaqI showed no significant difference between preterm group and control.

Conclusion: These results confirmed that women carrying ff genotype of FokI gene had significantly higher risk for vitamin D deficiency which enhances the risk of prematurity than women carrying FF genotype in West Indian women.

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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
8729 Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism.pdf admin 13 Nov, 2017 20:58 414.67 Kb 10
8727 VDR PTB.jpg admin 13 Nov, 2017 15:01 43.80 Kb 4
8380 VDR pre-term birth.pdf PDF 2017 admin 02 Sep, 2017 02:40 519.04 Kb 20
7489 Preterm VDR Table 3.jpg admin 15 Dec, 2016 15:48 50.90 Kb 70
7488 Preterm VDR.pdf PDF 2016 admin 15 Dec, 2016 15:48 135.63 Kb 108
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