Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health – Review
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6254836, 6 pages
Gerry Kurt Schwalfenberg, Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, No. 301, 9509-156 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada T5P 4J5
Yes, both K1 and K2 are important.
Founder of VitaminDWiki takes K1 + K2 (both type 4 and type 7) (LEF Super K)
Note: US govt still only lists Vitamin K (not K1 and K2) as of 2016
It appears that K intake should be increased as Vitamin D is increased
- Overview Vitamin K and Vitamin D
- Vitamin D blocks Vitamin K – 2015 50% reduction if take them concurrently
- Many vitamin D articles and videos by Schwalfenberg in Canada
Objective. To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy.
Quality of Evidence. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer.
Main Message. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required.
Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.
Conclusion from PDF.
Some of the recent review articles suggest that there is insuficient information in the literature to recommend the use of vitamin K1 supplements to prevent bone loss, fractures, and osteoarthritis in humans . Researches looking at these effects when supplementing vitamin K1 on bone density and vascular calciication are generally negative or show no diference.
Studies using vitamin K2 demonstrate improvement in bone quality rather than bone density, while significantly reducing fractures and preventing vascular calcification. For this reason, the literature is sometimes confusing and care must be taken to clearly look at the diferences in actions of vitamins K1 and K2. here is a need for more research to be done on vitamin K2 in regard to its efect on arthritis, cognition, diabetes, renal calculi, and cancer.
Vitamin K2 in the form of MK-7 is rapidly becoming popular as a supplement and is available OTC usually with a dose of 100-120 ugm. It is important as physicians to be aware that MK-7 can interfere with anticoagulation therapy when used above 50 ugm/day . On the other hand, the supplementation of some vitamin K at a steady level during anticoagulation therapy may result in a more stable INR that requires fewer adjustments. Using a small dose of vitamin K2 may beneit the patient by reducing the risk of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and vascular and tissue calcification. Well-controlled RCT studies are urgently needed in this area, especially given the well tolerated safety profile of vitamins