Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Improvements in birth outcomes and complications through direct genomic alteration
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 453, 15 September 2017, Pages 113-130, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.01.039
Bruce W. Hollis, Carol L. Wagner
- Search VitaminDWiki for HOLLIS or WAGNER 613 items as of Aug 2017
- Vitamin D Receptor has the following increases in female health problems (out of 35 increases as of Aug 2017)
with poor VDR
|4||polycystic ovary syndrome|
All articles in both Pregnancy and Genetics:
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus associated with 4 Vitamin D genes – Oct 2015
- Pregnant women need at least 40 ng of Vitamin D (Wagner, genes) – Oct 2017
- Vitamin D genes and pregnancy – 7th study - Sept 2017
- Vitamin D during pregnancy – dramatic changes in both metabolism and genes – Feb 2017
- 5839 genes changed during pregnancy (many genes were related to Vitamin D) – Oct 2016
- Miscarriages strongly associated without poor placental gene which locally activates Vitamin D – Dec 2016
- Preeclampsia 3.5 times more likely if low vitamin D (affects 348 Vit. D genes) – RCT Nov 2016
- Low vitamin D in pregnancy – epigenetic pancreas problems in offspring (mice) – May 2016
- Low vitamin D in mother rat altered 426 genes in newborn rat – Aug 2013
• Vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy differs drastically from the nonpregnant state.
• Vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and health effects are reviewed.
• Vitamin D plays a significant role in health outcomes of mother and fetus.
• Direct genomic alterations occur related to maternal vitamin D status.
• Childhood asthma and multiple sclerosis linked with pregnancy vitamin D status.
Pregnancy represents a time of rapid change, including dramatic shifts in vitamin D metabolism. Circulating concentrations of the active form of vitamin D—1,25(OH)2D skyrocket early in pregnancy to levels that would be toxic to a nonpregnant adult, signaling a decoupling of vitamin D from the classic endocrine calcium metabolic pathway, likely serving an immunomodulatory function in the mother and her developing fetus. In this review, we summarize the unique aspects of vitamin D metabolism and the data surrounding vitamin D requirements during this important period. Both observational and clinical trials are reviewed in the context of vitamin D's health effects during pregnancy that include preeclampsia, preterm birth, and later disease states such as asthma and multiple sclerosis. With enhanced knowledge about vitamin D's role as a preprohormone, it is clear that recommendations about supplementation must mirror what is clinically relevant and evidence-based. Future research that focuses on the critical period(s) leading up to conception and during pregnancy to correct deficiency or maintain optimal vitamin D status remains to be studied. In addition, what effects vitamin D has on genetic signatures that minimize the risk to the mother and her developing fetus have not been elucidated. Clearly, while there is much more research that needs to be performed, our understanding of vitamin D requirements during pregnancy has advanced significantly during the last few decades.
Table of contents
Not a single case of preeclampsia had vitamin D level > 40 nanograms/mL