The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, online 17 Dec 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.12.011
- Risk of infant Asthma cut in half if mother supplemented Vitamin D to get more than 30 ng – RCT Oct 2017
- Respiratory infection in infant was 7 X more likely if low cord Vitamin D – March 2017
- Five times less mite allergy when vitamin D added in mid pregnancy and to infant – RCT April 2016
- All preemies with Chronic Lung Disease had low vitamin D levels– July 2015
- Infant risk of obesity increased by 50 percent if low vitamin D during pregnancy – Sept 2015
- Breastfeeding mothers and Vitamin D: supplement only themselves usually, 4 out of 10 used monthly rather than daily – Jan 2017
Note: supplementing every 2 weeks is slightly better than every every 4 weeks
- Bone loss during black pregnancies – 4000 IU of vitamin D was not enough – Dec 2017
- Dark skin pregnancies 2.6 times more likely to have low vitamin D – March 2017
- Postpartum depression 7X more likely if less than 10 ng of vitamin D – Sept 2014
- Fewer than half of pregnancies will get even 20 ng of vitamin D with 800 IU daily dose – meta-analysis May 2017
- Low Vitamin D results in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes – Wagner meta-analysis March 2017
- Congenital heart defects twice as likely if low vitamin D while pregnant – Feb 2018
- Vitamin D and fertility: a systematic review – May 2012
- Vitamin D and Human Reproduction – 51 page chapter – April 2017
- Vitamin D and pregnancy – review Nov 2015
- Pregnancy and infants healthier with Omega-3 supplementation
- Congenital Heart Disease is associated with gestational diabetes in first trimester (need Vitamin D and Omega-3 early) Dec 2017 Levels need to be high before her first pregnancy visit to the doctor - need to start months before becoming pregnant (or use loading dose)
Pregnancy category starts with
- see also
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D
- Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D,
- All items in category Infant/Child
- breastfed 887 items as of Feb 2017
- Preeclampsia 949 items as of Feb 2017
- Pre-term 2110 items as of Feb 2017
- "polycystic ovary syndrome" OR PCOS 298 items as of Feb 2017
- Gestational Diabetes
- c-section OR "caesarean section" (various spellings) 242 items as of Feb 2017
- postpartum depression 36 items as of April 2016
- Search VitaminDiiki for MISCARRIAGE OR "Spontaneous abortion" 339 items as of Jan 2018
- Search VitaminDWiki for "Assisted reproduction" 33 items as of Feb 2017
- (Stunting OR “low birth weight” OR LBW) 505 items as of Jan 2018
- Click on chart for details
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summaryProblem
Reduces Proof 1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe 2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 times RCT* 3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT* 4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe 5. Premature birth 2 times RCT* 6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 times Observe 7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT* 8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis 9. Infant height, weight, head size
within normal limits
RCT* 10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT* 11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention 12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 times Observe 13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 times RCT* 14. Good motor skills @ age 3 1.4 times Observe 15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT* 16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT*
10 Most-visited pages in Infant-Child category in VitaminDWiki__
Others by Heyden include
- So Tell Me . . . What Are You Doing to Prevent Breast Cancer - June 2017
- Mommy, Me & Vitamin D - Heyden 2014
- Iodine and Pregnancy
Others by Wimalawansa include
- Non-musculoskeletal benefits of vitamin D– Wimalawansa – Sept 2016
- Vitamin D: Everything You Need to Know - book Aug 2012
- Hypothesis - Low Vitamin D causes Cardiovascular diseases - Dec 2016
- Vitamin D papers (28 free PDFs) in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry – Jan 2018 several papers
Download the PDF from Sci-Hub via VitaminDWiki
Note: VitaminDWiki unable to extract text from the PDF due to watermarks
E.L. Heyden a, , S.J. Wimalawansa b, ,
- Vitamin D deficiency may exceed 40% among pregnant women, subjecting both mother and fetus to adverse consequences and outcomes.
- Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia, bacterial vaginosis, gestational diabetes, spontaneous abortions, and preterm labor and can harm the fetus by growth restriction, physical deformity, and increasing future health risks.
- In humans, insufficient UVB exposure is the primary cause of vitamin D deficiency; lifestyle choices are the predominant cause of insufficient exposure to sunlight.
- Diet typically supplies less than 10% of the human need of vitamin D, necessitating safe UVB exposure or supplementation.
- Emerging data and evolving consensus place the need for vitamin D supplementation at 4,000 IU per day during pregnancy for optimal healthy pregnancy and its related outcomes.
Pregnancy places exceptional demands on vitamin D and calcium availability; thus, their deficiencies during pregnancy threaten the woman and her fetus. Globally, vitamin D and other micronutrient deficiencies are common during pregnancy, especially in developing countries where pregnant women have less access to supplements. Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be as high as 40% among pregnant women. As a pregnancy progresses, the requirements for vitamin D increase and can worsen preexisting hypovitaminosis D.
Consequently, hypovitaminosis D is associated with a higher incidence of
- fetal miscarriage,
- gestational diabetes,
- bacterial vaginosis, and
- impaired fetal and childhood growth and development.
This review explores the recent advances in the understanding of vitamin D and the pivotal role it plays in human reproduction, with an emphasis on pregnancy. Given the seriousness of the issue, there is a pressing need for clinicians to become aware of the risks associated with not identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency. Identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency, including safe exposure to sunlight, is particularly relevant for those who seek assistance with fertility issues or prenatal counseling and those in the beginning of their pregnancy. The data point to a significant protective effects of vitamin D during pregnancy when the 25(OH)D serum level exceeds 30 ng/mL before pregnancy and during the first trimester and, sufficient levels are maintained throughout the pregnancy.
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