The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention
Rev Endocr Metab Disord 17 May 2017 doi:10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1
Michael F. Holick mfholick at bu.edu
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency cannot be under estimated.
There has been an association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including:
- childhood dental caries,
- autoimmune disorders,
- infectious diseases,
- cardiovascular disease,
- deadly cancers,
- type 2 diabetes and
- neurological disorders.
This review is to put into perspective the controversy surrounding the definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as well as providing guidance for how to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency.
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