Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data
PLOS x, July 7, 2017https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180512
Lars Rejnmark , Lise Sofie Bislev, Kevin D. Cashman, Gudny Eiríksdottir, Martin Gaksch, Martin Grübler, Guri Grimnes, Vilmundur Gudnason, Paul Lips, Stefan Pilz, Natasja M. van Schoor, Mairead Kiely, Rolf Jorde
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The Meta-analysis of Mortality and Vitamin D
- Review of meta-analyses of non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D (Mortality, RTI, etc) – July 2017
- Lung Cancer death 60 percent less likely if high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2017
- ICU patients 30 percent less likely to die if have enough vitamin D – meta-analysis Nov 2016
- Less likely to die if have enough vitamin D - Meta-analysis June 2014
- Vitamin D reduces risk of cause specific death, unless it is D2 – meta-analysis BMJ April 2014
- Death of women from cancer 24 percent less likely if 20 ng more vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- Chance of dying increases by 25 percent in seniors if low vitamin D – Meta-analysis July 2013
- Vitamin D protects against many types of health problems – review May 2013
- Vitamin D with Calcium reduces mortality by 7 percent – meta-analysis May 2012
- Death rate reduced 8 percent for 8 nanogram more vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2012
- 40 ng Vitamin D perhaps optimal for reduced mortality – Meta-analysis Jan 2012
- Vitamin D3 but not D2 reduces mortality – meta-analysis July 2011
- Vitamin D and mortality a meta-analysis of RCT - 2008
The Meta-analysis of Hypertension and Vitamin D
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Blood pressure is reduced by more than 800 IU of vitamin D – meta-analysis Aug 2016
- Hypertension is associated with low vitamin D in some groups – meta-analysis April 2015
- Hypertension reduced by Omega-3, especially if previously untreated – meta-analysis July 2014
- Probiotics reduces blood pressure, but not as much as vitamin D does – meta-analysis July 2014
- Hypertension associated with genes which reduce vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2014
- Pre-eclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Pre-Eclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- Hypertension 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2013
- Metabolic Syndrome in children is associated with low vitamin D – review Jan 2013
- Vitamin D associated with 50 percent less ischemic stroke – meta-analysis Aug 2012
- Hypertension 2X more likely when vitamin D levels lower than 14 ng – meta-analysis May 2012
- Meta-analysis found hypertension reduced with vitamin D – Dec 2010
A large number of observational studies have reported harmful effects of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on non-skeletal outcomes. We performed a systematic quantitative review on characteristics of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) included in meta-analyses (MAs) on non-skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation.
Methods and findings
We identified systematic reviews (SR) reporting summary data in terms of MAs of RCTs on selected non-skeletal outcomes. For each outcome, we summarized the results from available SRs and scrutinized included RCTs for a number of predefined characteristics. We identified 54 SRs including data from 210 RCTs. Most MAs as well as the individual RCTs reported null-findings on risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, weight-loss, and malignant diseases.
Beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation was reported in
- 1 of 4 MAs on depression,
- 2 of 9 MAs on blood pressure,
- 3 of 7 MAs on respiratory tract infections, and
- 8 of 12 MAs on mortality.
Most RCTs have primarily been performed to determine skeletal outcomes, whereas non-skeletal effects have been assessed as secondary outcomes.
Only one-third of the RCTs had low level of 25OHD as a criterion for inclusion and a mean baseline 25OHD level below 50 nmol/L was only present in less than half of the analyses.
Published RCTs have mostly been performed in populations without low 25OHD levels. The fact that most MAs on results from RCTs did not show a beneficial effect does not disprove the hypothesis suggested by observational findings on adverse health outcomes of low 25OHD levels.
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