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Micronutrients (such as Vitamin D) for critically ill children – review Oct 2017

Assessment of Micronutrient Status in Critically ill Children: Challenges and Opportunities

Nutrients 2017, 9, 1185; doi:10.3390/nu9111185
Duy T. Dao 1,+ , Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos 1,+, Bennet S. Cho , Zhilling Li , Mark Puder1, and Kathleen M. Gura 3,*

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items in BOTH of categories: Infant-Child and Trauma/Surgery


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Abstract: Micronutrients refer to a group of organic vitamins and inorganic trace elements that serve many functions in metabolism. Assessment of micronutrient status in critically ill children is challenging due to many complicating factors, such as evolving metabolic demands, immature organ function, and varying methods of feeding that affect nutritional dietary intake. Determination of micronutrient status, especially in children, usually relies on a combination of biomarkers, with only a few having been established as a gold standard. Almost all micronutrients display a decrease in their serum levels in critically ill children, resulting in an increased risk of deficiency in this setting. While vitamin D deficiency is a well-known phenomenon in critical illness and can predict a higher need for intensive care, serum concentrations of many trace elements such as iron, zinc, and selenium decrease as a result of tissue redistribution in response to systemic inflammation. Despite a decrease in their levels, supplementation of micronutrients during times of severe illness has not demonstrated clear benefits in either survival advantage or reduction of adverse outcomes. For many micronutrients, the lack of large and randomized studies remains a major hindrance to critically evaluating their status and clinical significance.

Sorry, did not have time to extract the excellent article - Founder, VitaminDWiki
B1 Thiamine Aerobic and carbohydrate metabolism
B2 Riboflavin Oxidation-Reduction reactions: FAD and FMN
B3 Niacin Oxidation-Reduction reactions: NAD and NADP
B5 Pantothenic acid Acylation and acetylation: coenzyme A
B6 Pyridoxal Phosphate Metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
B7 Biotin Carboxylase enzymes
B9 Folate DNA and RBC synthesis
B12 Cobalamin DNA, RBC, and myelin synthesis
Vitamin C
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Iron
Calcium
Magnesium
Zinc
Selenium
Copper

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