By Hank Schultz, 13-Oct-2016
Reporting on statistical analysis of food intake and disease prevalence data from a 168 countries has concluded that vitamin K2 deficiency is as big a risk for developing heart disease as is smoking.
Cardiovascular Disease Death Before Age 65 in 168 Countries Correlated Statistically with Biometrics, Socioeconomic Status, Tobacco, Gender, Exercise, Macronutrients, and Vitamin K
Cureus 8(8): e748. DOI 10.7759/cureus.748
David K. Cundiff 1 dkcundiff at whistleblowerdoctor.org , Paul S. Agutter 2
1. Internal Medicine, LA County + USC Medical Center (Retired) 2. Formerly with Theoretical Medicne and Biology Group, Formerly University of Edinburgh
Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4- MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels.
Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries. We also collected female and male cohort data on early death from CVD (ages 15-64 years), insufficient physical activity, tobacco, biometric CVD risk markers, socioeconomic risk factors for CVD, and gender. The outcome measures included (1) univariate correlations of early death from CVD with each risk factor, (2) a multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD (dependent variable) to macronutrient profile, vitamin K1 and K2 and other risk factors (independent variables), (3) for each risk factor appearing in the multiple regression formula, the portion of CVD risk attributable to that factor, and (4) similar univariate and multivariate analyses of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) (simulated from diabetes prevalence), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and cholesterol/ HDL-C ratio (simulated from serum cholesterol) (dependent variables) and dietary and other risk factors (independent variables).
Female and male cohorts in countries that have vitamin K2 < 5pg per 2000 kcal/day per capita (n = 70) had about 2.2 times the rate of early CVD deaths as people in countries with > 24 pg/day of vitamin K2 per 2000 kcal/day (n = 72). A multiple regression-derived formula relating early death from CVD to dietary nutrients and other risk factors accounted for about 50% of the variance between cohorts in early CVD death. The attributable risks of the variables in the CVD early death formula were:
- too much alcohol (0.38%),
- too little vitamin K2 (6.95%),
- tobacco (6.87%),
- high blood pressure (9.01%),
- air pollution (9.15%),
- early childhood death (3.64%),
- poverty (7.66%), and
- male gender (6.13%)
Conclusions from PDF
These multiple-regression equations relating CVD-associated outcomes to diet and other risk
factors should be confirmed with prospective studies on individuals.
Because of these findings, health regulatory agencies of countries should more inclusively
measure vitamin K2 levels (MK-4–MK-13) in foods and should designate levels for adequate
intakes (AIs) for vitamin K2. In wealthy countries, given the health concerns with excessive
meat, dairy, and eggs (e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer), vitamin K2 should be optimally
boosted from fermented plants containing long chain menaquinones rather than from animal
products. Likewise, for people in poor countries, increasing the intake of fermented foods such
as sauerkraut, miso, and natto would be the most cost-effective and healthful way to boost
vitamin K2 to adequate levels.
See also VitaminDWiki
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Cardiovascular and Vitamin K
- Low Vitamin K2 is as risky as smoking for heart disease - Oct 2016
- Cardiovascular death: 9 percent due to hypertension or air pollution, 7 percent: low Vitamin K2 or smoking – Oct 2016
- Decreased need for warfarin after Vitamin D levels optimized – RCT May 2016
- Cardiovascular calcification prevented by Omega-3, Magnesium, Vitamin K, and Vitamin D – April 2015
- If you must take statins and want to avoid hardening of arteries, take vitamin K2 – RCT May 2015
- Vitamin K2 decreases arterial stiffness (cleans arteries) – RCT Feb 2015
- Hypothesis: Vitamin K will reduce prostate blood vessel problems – Jan 2015
- Increased Vitamin K2 reduces the problems of excess Calcium – Nov 2013
- Cholesterol, Vitamins D3 and K2, heart disease, sulfates, LDL, – Masterjohn Interview Jan 2013
- Soft Bones, Hard Arteries, Vitamin D, Vitamin K2 and antibiotics – Sept 2012
- Vitamin D – vitamin K – bittle bones – hardened arteries – LEF Sept 2010