Omega-3 fatty acids in obesity and metabolic syndrome: A mechanistic update
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.02.012
Kembra Albracht-Schultea, b, Nishan S. Kalupahanaa, b, d, skalupahana at pdn.ac.lk, , Latha Ramalingama, b, Shu Wanga, b, Shaikh Rahmana, b, Jacalyn Robert-McCombb, c, Naima Moustaid-Moussaa, b
- Overview: Omega-3 many benefits include helping vitamin D
- Obese youths 2X less likely to develop Metabolic Syndrome if take Onega-3 – RCT April 2016
- Overweight women on caloric restriction diet got 3X benefits from 8 weeks of Omega-3 – RCT Dec 2015
- Omega-3 in infancy reduces Obesity following antibiotic (confirmed in rats, suspected in humans) – Feb 2016
- Hypothesis – Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio increases obesity – Nov 2015
Vitamin D also fights Metabolic Syndrome
Strategies to reduce obesity have become public health priorities as the prevalence of obesity has risen in the United States and around the world.
While the anti-inflammatory and hypo-triglyceridemic properties of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are well known, their anti-obesity effects and efficacy against metabolic syndrome, especially in humans, are still under debate.
In animal models, evidence consistently suggests a role for n-3 PUFA in reducing fat mass, particularly in the retroperitoneal and epididymal regions.
In humans, however, published research suggests that though n-3 PUFA may not aid weight loss, they may attenuate further weight gain, and could be useful in the diet or as a supplement to help maintain weight loss.
Proposed mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA may work to improve body composition and counteract obesity-related metabolic changes include:
- modulating lipid metabolism;
- regulating adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin;
- alleviating adipose tissue inflammation;
- promoting adipogenesis; and
- altering epigenetic mechanisms.
ALA, α–linolenic acid; AA, arachidonic acid; BMI, body mass index; BAT, brown adipose tissue; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; DPA, docosapentaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; FABP, fatty acid-binding protein; FFAR, free fatty acid receptor family; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HF, high-fat; IL, interleukin; LA, linoleic acid; MetS, metabolic syndrome; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; SFA, saturated fatty acids; TG, triglycerides; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; UCP, uncoupling protein; VLDL, very low-density lipoprotein; WAT, white adipose tissue