Concussion in adolescence and risk of multiple sclerosis.
Ann Neurol. 2017 Sep 4. doi: 10.1002/ana.25036. [Epub ahead of print]
Montgomery S1,2,3, Hiyoshi A1, Burkill S2,4, Alfredsson L5,6, Bahmanyar S2,4, Olsson T7.
- Based on 80,000 Swedish teens who visited a hospital for a concussion
- Less risk of MS if only a single concussion or younger than a teenager
Some details of study are at:
Concussions in Teenagers Tied to Multiple Sclerosis Risk NYT Oct 2017
Possible reasons include:
1) Great drop in Glutamate following a concussion
2) Great drop in Vitamin D following a trauma
3) Increased risk of concussion if had low Omega-3
4) Increased risk of concussion due to slower muscle response associated with low vitamin D
5) Low Vitamin D independently associated with increased MS risk
- Collegiate Swimmers getting 4000 IU of vitamin D had fewer injuries – March 2013
- Mild Traumatic Brain Injury prevented with Omega-3, Resveratrol, etc (in rats) – Oct 2017
- Fast twitch muscles increased by Vitamin D in athletes and seniors (reduce falling) – Oct 2016
- Result of 5 years of Vitamin D given to athletes in a high school: $60 million in scholarships, almost zero concussions, etc. - June 2016
- NCAA athletes – one third had low levels of vitamin D, 19X more likely if black race – March 2015 Would be interesting to examine the data in this study to see if there was increased risk associated with dark skin
- Traumatic brain injury treated by Vitamin D Progesterone Omega-3 and glutamine – May 2013
- Vitamin D and Glutamine reduced Trauma Center deaths by half – March 2017
- Football Brain injuries prevented by Omega-3 – RCT Jan 2016
- Multiple Sclerosis risk increased due to genes - 22nd study – Aug 2017
- Concussions (traumatic brain injury) getting big press coverage, vitamin D might be both a cause and a solution Which has:
Increase in Concussions - 5X for girls, 2X for boys
(while vitamin D and Omega-3 have been decreasing)
To assess whether concussion in childhood or adolescence is associated with subsequent multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. Previous research suggests an association, but methodological limitations included retrospective data collection and small study populations.
The national Swedish Patient Register (hospital diagnoses) and MS Register were used to identify all MS diagnoses up to 2012 among people born since 1964, when the Patient Register was established. The 7,292 patients with MS were matched individually with 10 people without MS by sex, year of birth, age/vital status at MS diagnosis, and region of residence (county), resulting in a study population of 80,212. Diagnoses of concussion and control diagnoses of broken limb bones were identified using the Patient Register from birth to age 10 years or from age 11 to 20 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations with MS.
Concussion in adolescence was associated with a raised risk of MS, producing adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.22 (1.05-1.42, p = 0.008) and 2.33 (1.35-4.04, p = 0.002) for 1 diagnosis of concussion and >1 diagnosis of concussion, respectively, compared with none. No notable association with MS was observed for concussion in childhood, or broken limb bones in childhood and adolescence.
Head trauma in adolescence, particularly if repeated, is associated with a raised risk of future MS, possibly due to initiation of an autoimmune process in the central nervous system. This further emphasizes the importance of protecting young people from head injuries.
PMID: 28869671 DOI: 10.1002/ana.25036