Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies
BMJ 2014; 349 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g6015 (Published 28 October 2014)
Karl Michaëlsson, professor1, Alicja Wolk, professor2, Sophie Langenskiöld, senior lecturer3, Samar Basu, professor3, Eva Warensjö Lemming, researcher14, Håkan Melhus, professor5, Liisa Byberg, associate professor1
- Note: Many people now tend to drink low-fat milk, which provides 2.5X less Vitamin D to the body
- Note: Various groups around the world are trying to increase milk consumption by elderly
- France is planning to reduce hip fractures by dairy vitamin D fortification (plan will not work) – 2017
- Calcium supplements proven to NOT reduce fractures, but are proven to INCREASE heart problems – July 2015
- Death by Calcium, book by Thomas Levy – Dec 2013
- Risk of Ischemic Stroke doubles if take more than 1 gram of Calcium daily for years – May 2017
Note: There are 0.9 grams of Calcium in 3 glasses of milk
- Is a health problem associated with Low vitamin D, Low Magnesium, or too much Calcium – Jan 2016
- Why Most Calcium Supplement Recommendations are DEAD WRONG - Sept 2013
- Increased Vitamin K2 reduces the problems of excess Calcium – Nov 2013
K2 is only from cows fed in the pasture
Objective To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men.
Design Cohort studies.
Setting Three counties in central Sweden.
Participants Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997.
Main outcome measure Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture.
Results During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15 541 women died and 17 252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10 112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases.
In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker).
Conclusions High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended.