The Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 307; doi:10.3390/nu9030307 (registering DOI)
- Diabetic Retinopathy 2 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Nov 2016
- Diabetic Retinopathy 27 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016
- Search VitaminDWiki for Diabetic Retinopathy 103 items as of March 2017
- Worse diabetic vision is assocated with lower levels of ACTIVE vitamin D - Nov 2012 has the following chart
See also Wikipedia March 2017
"Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is when damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes. It can eventually lead to blindness.
It affects up to 80 percent of people who have had diabetes for 20 years or more. At least 90% of new cases could be reduced if there were proper treatment and monitoring of the eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Each year in the United States, diabetic retinopathy accounts for 12% of all new cases of blindness. It is also the leading cause of blindness for people aged 20 to 64 years."
The word VITAMIN does not occur once in the wikipedia article
From Google Images
Bang-An Luo 1, Fan Gao 2 and Lu-Lu Qin 2,3,*
- 1 Department of Mental Health, Brain Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha 410007, Hunan, China
- 2 Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, Hunan, China
- 3 Department of Prevention Medicine, Medical School, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, Hunan, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
Emerging evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that vitamin D may play an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the association between vitamin D and the risk of diabetic retinopathy. We conducted a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE updated in September 2016 with the following keywords: “vitamin D” or “cholecalciferol” or “25-hydroxyvitamin D” or “25(OH)D” in combination with “diabetic retinopathy” or “DR”. Fifteen observational studies involving 17,664 subjects were included. In this meta-analysis, type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of DR (odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.07, 3.86), and an obvious decrease of 1.7 ng/mL (95% CI: −2.72, −0.66) in serum vitamin D was demonstrated in the patients with diabetic retinopathy. Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In conclusion, the evidence from this meta-analysis indicates an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients.