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Dementia less likely with increased levels of Magnesium etc.


See VitaminDWiki


Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

Magnes Res. 2011 Sep;24(3):S115-21.
Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Di Bella G, Dominguez LJ.
Chair of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DIMIS), University of Palermo, Italy. mario.barbagallo at unipa.it
\Magnesium deficiency is present in several chronic, age-related diseases, including cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. The aim of the present study was to study magnesium homeostasis in patients with mild to moderate AD. One hundred and one elderly (?65 years) patients were consecutively recruited (mean age: 73.4±0.8 years; M/F: 42/59). In all patients, a comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed including cognitive and functional status. Admission criteria for the AD group (diagnosed according to the DSM-IV and the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) included: mild to moderate cognitive impairment (MMSE score: 11-24/30, corrected for age and education). Blood samples were analyzed for serum total magnesium (Mg-tot) and serum ionized magnesium (Mg-ion). AD patients had significantly lower MMSE scores (20.5±0.7 vs 27.9±0.2; p<0.001), and for the physical function tests. Mg-ion was significantly lower in the AD group as compared to age-matched control adults without AD (0.50±0.01 mmol/L vs 0.53±0.01 mmol/L; p<0.01). No significant differences were found in Mg-tot between the two groups (1.91±0.03 mEq/L vs 1.95±0.03 mEq/L; p=NS). For all subjects, Mg-ion levels were significantly and directly related only to cognitive function (Mg-ion/MMSE r=0.24 p<0.05), while no significant correlations were found in this group of patients between magnesium and ADL or IADL. Our results show the presence of subclinical alterations in Mg-ion in patients with mild to moderate AD.

PMID: 21951617


Self-reported dietary intake of potassium, calcium, and magnesium and risk of dementia in the Japanese: the Hisayama Study.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Aug;60(8):1515-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04061.x. Epub 2012 Aug 2.
Ozawa M, Ninomiya T, Ohara T, Hirakawa Y, Doi Y, Hata J, Uchida K, Shirota T, Kitazono T, Kiyohara Y.
Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether higher intake of potassium, calcium, and magnesium reduces the risk of incident dementia.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING: The Hisayama Study, in Japan.

PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eighty-one community-dwelling Japanese individuals without dementia aged 60 and older.

MEASUREMENTS:
A 70-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the development of all-cause dementia and its subtypes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS:
During a 17-year follow-up, 303 participants experienced all-cause dementia; of these, 98 had vascular dementia (VaD), and 166 had Alzheimer's disease (AD). The multivariable-adjusted HRs for the development of all-cause dementia were 0.52 (95% confidence interval CI = 0.30-0.91), 0.64 (95% CI = 0.41-1.00), and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.40-1.01) for the highest quartiles of potassium, calcium, and magnesium intake, respectively, compared with the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, the HRs for the development of VaD were 0.20 (95% CI = 0.07-0.56), 0.24 (95% CI = 0.11-0.53), and 0.26 (95% CI = 0.11-0.61) for the highest quartiles of potassium, calcium, and magnesium intake, respectively. There was no evidence of a linear association between these mineral intakes and the risk of AD.

CONCLUSION:
Higher self-reported dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium reduce the risk of all-cause dementia, especially VaD, in the general Japanese population.

© 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

PMID: 22860881


Dietary intake of metals and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan.

J Neurol Sci. 2011 Jul 15;306(1-2):98-102. Epub 2011 Apr 16.
Miyake Y, Tanaka K, Fukushima W, Sasaki S, Kiyohara C, Tsuboi Y, Yamada T, Oeda T, Miki T, Kawamura N, Sakae N, Fukuyama H, Hirota Y, Nagai M; Fukuoka Kinki Parkinson's Disease Study Group.
Collaborators (40)
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan. miyake-y at fukuoka-u.ac.jp

Metals are involved in several important functions in the nervous system. Zinc and iron are increased and copper is decreased in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, epidemiological evidence for the association of dietary intake of metals with the risk of PD is limited. We investigated the relationship between metal consumption and the risk of PD in Japan using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Higher intake of iron, magnesium, and zinc was independently associated with a reduced risk of PD: the adjusted OR in the highest quartile was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.10-0.57, P for trend=0.0003) for iron, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.13-0.81, P for trend=0.007) for magnesium and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.26-0.95, P for trend=0.055) for zinc. There were no relationships between the intake of copper or manganese and the risk of PD. Higher intake of iron, magnesium, and zinc may be protective against PD.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. PMID: 21497832


Dementia increased if Magnesium in blood was too low OR too high - Sept 2017

Serum magnesium is associated with the risk of dementia
''Note: a healthy body keeps the serum Magnesium level in the middle of the range''
Brenda C.T. Kieboom, MD, MSc, Silvan Licher, MD, Frank J. Wolters, MD, MSc, M. Kamran Ikram, MD, PhD, Ewout J. Hoorn, MD, PhD, Robert Zietse, MD, PhD, Bruno H. Stricker, MMed, PhD b.stricker at erasmusmc.nl and M. Arfan Ikram, MD, PhD
Neurology 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004517, online September 20, 2017

Objective: To determine if serum magnesium levels are associated with the risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease.

Methods: Within the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, we measured serum magnesium levels in 9,569 participants, free from dementia at baseline (1997–2008). Participants were subsequently followed up for incident dementia, determined according to the DSM-III-R criteria, until January 1, 2015. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to associate quintiles of serum magnesium with incident all-cause dementia. We used the third quintile as a reference group and adjusted for age, sex, Rotterdam Study cohort, educational level, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, comorbidities, other electrolytes, and diuretic use.

Results: Our study population had a mean age of 64.9 years and 56.6% were women. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 823 participants were diagnosed with all-cause dementia. Both low serum magnesium levels (≤0.79 mmol/L) and high serum magnesium levels (≥0.90 mmol/L) were associated with an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval CI 1.02–1.69, and HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02–1.67, respectively).

Conclusions: Both low and high serum magnesium levels are associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia. Our results warrant replication in other population-based studies.

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