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Bibliography of Black-White health disparities linked to vitamin D - Dr. Grant March 2017

William B. Grant, Ph.D. wbgrant at infionline.net


I prepared this bibliography in order to see the level of acceptance for vitamin D affecting health outcomes for black Americans. (I omitted papers on bone health.) My impression is that it is not very well accepted. One reason given by researchers is that most of the vitamin D studies were performed on white, not black people. Another likely reason is that most of the studies are ecological or observational in nature, not from clinical trials.

I am interested in suggestions on what type of manuscript to prepare and where to submit it in order to make physicians and researchers interested in the health of black Americans more aware of vitamin D. I tried to work with the National Medical Association but have not made any progress with them since my 2008 letter in their journal. Please let me know your thoughts and if you would like to work on this manuscript.

Numbers of citations are given in the form (xx, yy) where xx is the number in the Web of Science and yy is the number in scholar.google.com. The Web of Science numbers are from the journals that they follow. The scholar.google.com citations are from a variety of sources including websites. Scholar.google.com numbers as well as who cited the paper are freely available from the Web. Web of Science numbers are available through libraries. Scholar.google.com numbers can be about a factor of two higher than Web of Science numbers. The citation numbers were from November 20, 2016.

  • 460Nesby-O'Dell S, Scanlon KS, Cogswell ME, Gillespie C, Hollis BW, Looker AC, Allen C, Doughertly C, Gunter EW, Bowman BA. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among African American and white womenof reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):187-92. (xxx, 917)
  • 409 Grant WB. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002 Mar 15;94(6):1867-75. (409, 786)
  • 233 Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Oct;26(10):2341-57. (233, 398)
  • 198 Powe CE, Evans MK, Wenger J, Zonderman AB, Berg AH, Nalls M, Tamez H, Zhang D, Bhan I, Karumanchi SA, Powe NR, Thadhani R. Vitamin D-binding protein and vitamin D status of black Americans and white Americans. N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 21;369(21):1991-2000. (xxx, 397)
  • 198 Powe CE, Karumanchi SA, Thadhani R. Vitamin D-binding protein and vitamin D in blacks and whites. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 27;370(9):880-1. (xx, 396)
  • 133 Aloia JF, Li-Ng M. Re: epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Oct;135(7):1095-6; author reply 1097-8. (133, 260)
  • 125 Harris SS. Vitamin D and African Americans. J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):1126-9. (125, 207)
  • 90 Fiscella K, Franks P. Vitamin D, race, and cardiovascular mortality: findings from a national US sample. Ann Fam Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;8(1):11-8. (90, 124)
  • 76 Wei SQ, Qi HP, Luo ZC, Fraser WD. Maternal vitamin D status and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Jun;26(9):889-99. (76, 140)
  • 72 Bresnahan M, Begg MD, Brown A, Schaefer C, Sohler N, Insel B, Vella L, Susser E. Race and risk of schizophrenia in a US birth cohort: another example of health disparity? Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Aug;36(4):751-8. (72, 141)
  • 65 Grant WB, Peiris AN. Possible role of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Black–White health disparities in the United States. J Am Med Directors Assoc. 2010 Nov;11(9):617-28. (65, 88)
  • 59 Egan KM, Signorello LB, Munro HM, Hargreaves MK, Hollis BW, Blot WJ. Vitamin D insufficiency among African-Americans in the southeastern United States:implications for cancer disparities (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Jun;19(5):527-35. (59, 81)
  • 57 Grant WB. Lower vitamin-D production from solar ultraviolet-B irradiance may explain some differences in cancer survival rates. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006 Mar;98(3):357-64. (57, 83)
  • 49 Reis JP, Michos ED, von Mühlen D, Miller ER 3rd. Differences in vitamin D status as a possible contributor to the racial disparity in peripheralarterial disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1469-77. (49, 81)
  • 43 Robinson-Cohen C, Hoofnagle AN, Ix JH, Sachs MC, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS, Kestenbaum BR, de Boer IH. Racial differences in the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration with coronary heart disease events. JAMA. 2013 Jul 10;310(2):179-88. (xx, 86)
  • 38 Bodnar LM, Simhan HN. Vitamin D may be a link to black-white disparities in adverse birth outcomes. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2010 Apr;65(4):273-84. (xx, 76)
  • 34 Grubbs SS, Polite BN, Carney J Jr, Bowser W, Rogers J, Katurakes N, Hess P, Paskett ED. Eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer in the real world: it took a village. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jun 1;31(16):1928-30. (34, 54)
  • 32 Luke B, Brown MB, Stern JE, Missmer SA, Fujimoto VY, Leach R. Racial and ethnic disparities in assisted reproductive technology pregnancy and live birthrates within body mass index categories. Fertil Steril. 2011 Apr;95(5):1661-6. (32, 42)
  • 30 Burris HH, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CA Jr, Litonjua AA, Huh SY, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy and small-for-gestational age in black and white infants. Ann Epidemiol. 2012 Aug;22(8):581-6. (30, 50)
  • 27 Mishra DK, Wu Y, Sarkissyan M, Sarkissyan S, Chen Z, Shang X, Ong M, Heber D, Koeffler HP, Vadgama JV. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Prognosis of Breast Cancer among African-American and Hispanic Women. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57967. (27, xx)
  • 25 Kritchevsky SB, Tooze JA, Neiberg RH, Schwartz GG, Hausman DB, Johnson MA, Bauer DC, Cauley JA, Shea MK, Cawthon PM, Harris TB, Rubin SM, Tylavsky FA, Houston DK; Health ABC Study. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and mortality in black and white older adults: the health ABC study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;97(11):4156-65. (25, 42)
  • 24 Grant WB, Peiris AN. Differences in vitamin D status may account for unexplained disparities in cancer survival rates between African and White Americans. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(2):85-94. (24, 45)
  • 23 Grant WB. Solar ultraviolet-B irradiance and vitamin D may reduce the risk of septicemia. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009;1(1):37-42. (23, 56)
  • 20 Fiscella K, Winters P, Tancredi D, Hendren S, Franks P. Racial disparity in death from colorectal cancer: does vitamin D deficiency contribute? Cancer. 2011 Mar 1;117(5):1061-9. (20, 32)
  • 19 Bodnar LM, Klebanoff MA, Gernand AD, Platt RW, Parks WT, Catov JM, Simhan HN. Maternal vitamin D status and spontaneous preterm birth by placental histology in the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Jan 15;179(2):168-76. (xx, 39)
  • 18 Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Peters RM, Johnson DA, Li J, Rao DS. Vitamin D nutritional status and antenatal depressive symptoms in African American women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012 Nov;21(11):1189-95. (18, 36)
  • 17 Grant WB, Cannell JJ. Autism prevalence in the United States with respect to solar ultraviolet-B doses: An ecological study. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(1): 159-64. (17, 41)
  • 17 Harris SS. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to increased rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in African Americans? Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May;93(5):1175S-8S. (xx, 35)
  • 16 Glover TL, Goodin BR, Horgas AL, Kindler LL, King CD, Sibille KT, Peloquin CA, Riley JL 3rd, Staud R, Bradley LA, Fillingim RB. Vitamin D, race, and experimental pain sensitivity in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Dec;64(12):3926-35. (16, 33)
  • 15 Rowland GW, Schwartz GG, John EM, Ingles SA. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: Effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Jan;27(1):187-94. (15, 28)
  • 12 Dunlop AL, Taylor RN, Tangpricha V, Fortunato S, Menon R. Maternal vitamin D, folate, and polyunsaturated fatty acid status and bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011: 216217. (12, 29)
  • 10 Grant WB. Differences in vitamin D status may explain black-white differences in breast cancer survival rates. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008 Sep;100(9):1040. (10, 14)
  • 10 Holick MF. Bioavailability of vitamin D and its metabolites in black and white adults. N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 21;369(21):2047-8. (x, 20)
  • 9 Yao S, Ambrosone CB. Associations between vitamin D deficiency and risk of aggressive breast cancer in African-American women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jul;136:337-41. (9, 21)
  • 9 Weishaar T, Vergili JM. Vitamin D status is a biological determinant of health disparities. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 May;113(5):643-51. (9, 13)
  • 9 Artaza JN, Contreras S, Garcia LA, Mehrotra R, Gibbons G, Shohet R, Martins D, Norris KC. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: potential role in health disparities. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2011;22(4 Suppl):23-38. (9, 25)
  • 7 Hollis BW, Marshall DT, Savage SJ, Garrett-Mayer E, Kindy MS, Gattoni-Celli S. Vitamin D(3) supplementation, low-risk prostate cancer, and health disparities. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 July;136:233-7. (7, 17)
  • 7 Berg AH, Powe CE, Evans MK, Wenger J, Ortiz G, Zonderman AB, Suntharalingam P, Lucchesi K, Powe NR, Karumanchi SA, Thadhani RI. 24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d3 and vitamin D status of community-dwelling black and whiteAmericans. Clin Chem. 2015 Jun;61(6):877-84. (xx, 14)
  • 7 Signorello LB, Han X, Cai Q, Cohen SS, Cope EL, Zheng W, Blot WJ. A prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and mortality among African Americans and non-African Americans. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Jan 15;177(2):171-9. (7, 11)
  • 7 Pibiri F, Kittles RA, Sandler RS, Keku TO, Kupfer SS, Xicola RM, Llor X, Ellis NA. Genetic variation in vitamin D-related genes and risk of colorectal cancer in African Americans. Cancer Causes Control. 2014 May;25(5):561-70. (7, xx)
  • 6 Sorkin JD, Vasaitis TS, Streeten E, Ryan AS, Goldberg AP. Evidence for threshold effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in black and white obese postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2014 May;144(5):734-42 (x, 12)
  • 6 Grant DJ, Hoyo C, Akushevich L, Iversen ES, Whitaker R, Marks J, Berchuck A, Schildkraut JM. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) Polymorphisms and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Caucasian and African American Women. Gynecol Oncol. 2013 Apr;129(1):173-8. (xx, 13)
  • 4. Bibuld D, Health disparities and vitamin D. Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 2009 (xx, 9)
  • 3 Wesa KM, Segal NH, Cronin AM, Sjoberg DD, Jacobs GN, Coleton MI, Fleisher M, Dnistrian AM, Saltz LB, Cassileth BR. Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Survival in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(3):424-3. (x, 7)
  • 3 Steck SE, Arab L, Zhang H, Bensen JT, Fontham ET, Johnson CS, Mohler JL, Smith GJ, Su JL, Trump DL, Woloszynska-Read A. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 28;10(4):e0125151. (xx, 4)
  • 3 Taksler GB, Cutler DM, Giovannucci E, Smith MR, Keating NL. Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer. 2013 Sep 1;119(17):3195-203. (xx, 5)
  • 2 Tsai CJ, Giovannucci EL. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer among whites and African Americans. Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Oct;57(10):2497-503. (xx, 11)
  • 2 Schleicher RL, Sternberg MR, Looker AC, Yetley EA, Lacher DA, Sempos CT, Taylor CL, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Maw KL, Chaudhary-Webb M, Johnson CL, Pfeiffer CM. National Estimates of Serum Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolite Concentrations Measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in the US Population during 2007-2010. J Nutr. 2016 May;146(5):1051-61. (x, 3)
  • 2 Gupta AK, Brashear MM, Johnson WD. Low vitamin D levels, prediabetes and prehypertension in healthy African American adults. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Oct;22(10):877-82. (2, x)
  • 2 Cahoon EK, Pfeiffer RM, Wheeler DC, Arhancet J, Lin SW, Alexander BH, Linet MS, Freedman DM. Relationship between ambient ultraviolet radiation and non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: a U.S. population-based study of racial and ethnic groups. Int J Cancer. 2015 Mar 1;136(5):E432-41. (x, 4)
  • 2 Beyene D, Daremipouran M, Apprey V, Williams R, Ricks-Santi L, Kassim OO, Naab TJ, Kanaan YM, Copeland RL Jr. Use of Tanning Potential as a Predictor for Prostate Cancer Risk in African-American Men. In Vivo. 2014 11-12;28(6):1181-1187. (2, 3)
  • 2 Wagner CL, Baggerly C, McDonnell S, Baggerly KA, French CB, Baggerly L, Hamilton SA, Hollis BW. Post-hoc analysis of vitamin D status and reduced risk of preterm birth in two vitamin D pregnancy cohorts compared with South Carolina March of Dimes 2009-2011 rates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Jan;155(Pt B ):245-51. (2, 3)
  • 1 Paller CJ, Kanaan YM, Beyene DA, Naab TJ, Copeland RL, Tsai HL, Kanarek NF, Hudson TS. Risk of prostate cancer in African-American men: Evidence of mixed effects of dietary quercetin by serum vitamin D status. Prostate. 2015 Sep;75(13):1376-83. (1, 2)
  • 1 Batai K, Murphy AB, Nonn L, Kittles RA. Vitamin D and Immune Response: Implications for Prostate Cancer in African Americans. Front Immunol. 2016 Feb 22;7:53. (xx, 2)

No citation numbers yet

  • No authors listed Vitamin D deficiency in black people leads to greater pain levels from arthritis. Nurs Stand. 2012 Dec 5;27(14):14.
  • Alzaman NS, Dawson-Hughes B, Nelson J, D'Alessio D, Pittas AG. Vitamin D status of black and white Americans and changes in vitamin D metabolites after varied doses of vitamin D supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul;104(1):205-14.
  • Bacha F, Arslanian SA. Race or vitamin D: A determinant of intima media thickness in obese adolescents? Pediatr Diabetes. 2016 Nov 17. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12472. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Bandera EV, Lee VS, Rodriguez-Rodriguez L, Powell B, Kushi LH. RACIAL/ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN OVARIAN CANCER TREATMENT AND SURVIVAL. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Aug 12. pii: clincanres.1119.2016. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Benjamins MR, Hunt BR, Raleigh SM, Hirschtick JL, Hughes MM. Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer Mortality in the 50 Largest US Cities. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016 Aug 23;44:125-131.
  • Chandler PD, Giovannucci EL, Scott JB, Bennett GG, Ng K, Chan AT, Hollis BW, Rifai N, Emmons KM, Fuchs CS, Drake BF. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on C-peptide and 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations at 3 and 6 Months. Sci Rep. 2015 Jun 22;5:10411.
  • Ciubotaru I, Green SJ, Kukreja S, Barengolts E. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans. Transl Res. 2015 Nov;166(5):401-11.
  • Hardiman G, Savage SJ, Hazard ES, Wilson RC, Courtney SM, Smith MT, Hollis BW, Halbert CH, Gattoni-Celli S. Systems analysis of the prostate transcriptome in African-American men compared withEuropean-American men. Pharmacogenomics. 2016 Jun 30. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Hardiman G, Savage SJ, Hazard ES, Wilson RC, Courtney SM, Smith MT, Hollis BW, Halbert CH,Gattoni-Celli S. Systems analysis of the prostate transcriptome in African-American men compared with European-American men. Pharmacogenomics. 2016 Jun 30. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Harmon QE, Umbach DM, Baird DD. Use of Estrogen-Containing Contraception Is Associated With Increased Concentrations of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Aug 4:jc20161658. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Jackson JL, Judd SE, Panwar B, Howard VJ, Wadley VG, Jenny NS, Gutiérrez OM. Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with markers of inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity in black and white community-dwelling adults. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2016 Sep;5:21-25.
  • Jukic AM, Upson K, Harmon QE, Baird DD. Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with reduced odds of long menstrual cycles in a cross-sectional study of African American women. Fertil Steril. 2016 Jul;106(1):172-179.e2.
  • Krok-Schoen JL, Fisher JL, Baltic RD, Paskett ED. White-Black Differences in Cancer Incidence, Stage at Diagnosis, and Survival among Adults Aged 85 Years and Older in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Aug 15. pii: cebp.0354.2016. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Michos ED, Selvin E, Misialek JR, McEvoy JW, Ndumele CE, Folsom AR, Ballantyne CM, Lutsey PL. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Markers of Subclinical Myocardial Damage and Wall Stress: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Nov 7;5(11). pii: e003575.
  • Millen AE, Sahli MW, Nie J, LaMonte MJ, Lutsey PL, Klein BE, Mares JA, Meyers KJ, Andrews CA, Klein R. Adequate vitamin D status is associated with the reduced odds of prevalent diabetic retinopathy in African Americans and Caucasians. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016 Sep 1;15(1):128.
  • Palmer JR, Gerlovin H, Bethea TN, Bertrand KA, Holick MF, Ruiz-Narvaez EN, Wise LA, Haddad SA, Adams-Campbell LL, Kaufman HW, Rosenberg L, Cozier YC. Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D in relation to incidence of breast cancer in a large cohort of African American women. Breast Cancer Res. 2016 Aug 12;18(1):86.
  • Panwar B, Judd SE, Howard VJ, Jenny NS, Wadley VG, Gutiérrez OM. Vitamin D, Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Incident Cognitive Impairment: Findings from the REGARDS Study. PLoS One. 2016 Nov 3;11(11):e0165671.
  • Qin B, Moorman PG, Alberg AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bondy M, Cote ML, Funkhouser E, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Terry P, Schildkraut JM, Bandera EV. Dairy, calcium, vitamin D and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Br J Cancer. 2016 Sep 15. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2016.289. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Rapson IR, Michos ED, Alonso A, Hirsch AT, Matsushita K, Reis JP, Lutsey PL. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with incident peripheral artery disease among white and black adults in the ARIC study cohort. Atherosclerosis. 2017 Jan 16;257:123-129. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.01.016. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Sriram S, Croghan I, Lteif A, Donelan-Dunlap B, Li Z, Kumar S. Relationship between 25(OH)D levels and circulating lipids in African American adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Sep 22. pii: /j/jpem.ahead-of-print/jpem-2016-0090/jpem-2016-0090.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2016-0090. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Yao S, Haddad SA, Hu Q, Liu S, Lunetta KL, Ruiz-Narvaez EA, Hong CC, Zhu Q, Sucheston-Campbell L, David Cheng TY, Bensen JT, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Haiman CA, Olshan AF, Palmer JR, Ambrosone CB. Genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER Consortium. Int J Cancer. 2016 May 1;138(9):2118-26.
  • Zhu H, Bhagatwala J, Huang Y, Pollock NK, Parikh S, Raed A, Gutin B, Harshfield GA, Dong Y. Race/Ethnicity-Specific Association of Vitamin D and Global DNA Methylation: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Findings. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 6;11(4):e0152849.

Uncited publications, mostly letters to the editor or electronic comments (some of the comments may no longer be accessible)

  • Grant WB, Levine D, Langa KM, Rogers MA. Acute infection contributes to racial disparities in stroke mortality. Neurology. 2014 Sep 2;83(10):949-50. (0, 1)
  • Grant WB. Disparities in periodontitis prevalence among chronic kidney disease patients. J Dent Res. 2012 Mar;91(3):321. (0, 1)
  • Grant WB, Garland CF. Vitamin D deficiency may explain much of the racial disparity in breast cancer survival among older women. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct;32(5):540.
  • Grant WB, Mascitelli L, Goldstein MR. Differences in vitamin D status likely explain racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates in the Southeast. Cancer. 2012;118(17):4363
  • Grant WB. Differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and sugar consumption may help explain socioeconomic and racial/ethnic oral health disparities among US older adults. Pub Health Dentistry. 2015;75:253-4.
  • Grant WB. Differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations may explain most of the black-white breast cancer disparities in young women, Cancer. 2015 Jun 15;121(12):2097-8.
  • Grant WB. Differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations may explain some of the black-white disparity in endometrial cancer prevalence in the United States. Jan. 7, 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25534916 doi 10.1007/s10552-014-0510-3 views 28
  • Grant WB. Differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations may explain some of the racial disparities in noncardia gastric cancer incidence rates. Jan. 14 Re: Bautista MC, Jiang SF, Armstrong MA, Kakar S, Postlethwaite D, Li D. Significant racial disparities exist in noncardia gastric cancer outcomes among Kaiser Permanente's patient population. Dig Dis Sci. 2014 Oct 30. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25354832
  • Grant WB. Differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations may explain Much of the black-white-Hispanic differences in breast cancer-specific survival in the United States. Jan. 15. Re: Iqbal J, Ginsburg O, Rochon PA, Sun P, Narod SA. Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States. JAMA. 2015;313(2):165-173. pubmed/25585328
  • Grant WB. Differences in 25-yydroxyvitamin D concentrations may explain the black-white differences in chronic kidney disease and risk of renal cell carcinoma, Epidemiology. 2015 Jul;26(4):e48-9.
  • Grant WB. Differences in vitamin D levels may explain the racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/13/449/postcomment
  • Grant WB. Differences in vitamin D status may help explain racial disparities in failure-to-rescue among children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Jan. 9, 2015. Re: Chan T, Lion KC, Mangione-Smith R. Racial disparities in failure-to-rescue among children undergoing congenital heart surgery. J Pediatr. 2014 Dec 30. pii: S0022-3476(14)01072-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.11.020. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25556012
  • Grant WB. Differences in vitamin D status may help explain the black-white disparities in breast cancer survival rates. Jan. 9, 2014. Re: Coughlin SS. Intervention approaches for addressing breast cancer disparities among African American women. Ann Transl Med Epidemiol. 2014 Sep 8;1(1). pii: 1001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25568890\
  • Grant WB. Differences in vitamin D levels may contribute to racial disparities in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013 April;138(3):967-8.
  • Grant WB. Ecological studies of prostate cancer should consider ethnic background, BJU Int. 2012 April;109(Suppl s3):72–73.
  • Grant WB. Higher rates of venous thromboembolism for Black-Americans are likely due to lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Am J Hematol 2010 Oct.;85:908. (0, 3)
  • Grant WB. Lower vitamin D status may explain racial disparities in all-cause mortality among younger commercially insured women with incident metastatic breast cancer. Breast Can Res Treat. 25 July 2016
  • Grant WB. Lower vitamin D status may explain why African Americans have poorer outcomes than non-African Americans after surgery for Crohn's disease. J Chron's Colitis. J Crohns Colitis. 2016 Oct 20. pii: jjw190. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Grant WB. Lower vitamin d status may explain the higher prevalence of peripheral arterial diseaseamong African Americans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 21;52(17):1432; author reply 1432-3. (0, 5)
  • Grant WB. Racial disparities for uterine corpus tumors: changes in clinical characteristics and treatment over time. Cancer. 2010 Jan 1;116(1):256.
  • Grant WB. Racial disparity in vitamin D status may explain racial disparity in survival from estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Accepted March 15, 2017
  • Grant WB. Re: “Disparities between black and white children in hospitalizations associated with acute respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in 3 US counties--2002-2009” Am J Epi. 2013 Jul 1;178(1):155-6.
  • Grant WB. Roles of solar UVB and vitamin D in reducing cancer risk and increasing survival, Anticancer Res. 2016;36(3):1357-1370. (0, 5)
  • Grant WB. Vitamin D and racial disparities for pancreatic cancer - Letter. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 March;19(3):888. (0, 1)
  • Grant WB. Vitamin D disparities may explain some of the findings regarding risk of primary cesarean delivery. Feb. 23, 2015. Re: Min CJ, Ehrenthal DB, Strobino DM. Investigating racial differences in risk factors for primary cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jan 28. pii: S0002-9378(15)00085-X. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25637848
  • Grant WB. 'Vitamin D Explains Much Of The Ethnic Differences In Breast Cancer Incidence And Survival' has been included in the Opinions Forum of Medical News Today. Jan. 15, 2015. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/182403
  • Grant WB. Vitamin D levels affect breast cancer survival rates. ASO-2013-04-0686; revised: ASO-2013-05-0790 accepted June 20 (in press)
  • Grant WB. Vitamin D status may explain racial disparities in survival among patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma in the targeted therapy era. Cancer. 2016 Dec 15;122(24):3892-3893
  • Grant WB. Vitamin D status may explain some of the racial disparities in rectal cancer. ASO-2013-04-0687 Accepted June 18, (in press)
  • Grant WB. Vitamin D status may help explain racial disparities in breast cancer hospitalization outcomes. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016 Sep 28. pii: S1877-7821(16)30171-0.

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Vitamin D Far from equator
Autism
1566 Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D 19505
19 Aug, 2016 18:20
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Pregnancy
1772 Vitamin D Council vs FDA concerning vitamin D deficiency in blacks and others - June 2011 14053
30 Nov, 2013 21:00
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Deficiency of Vitamin D
1402 Improved blood flow in blacks with just 2000 IU of vitamin D – Feb 2011 11046
22 Nov, 2011 22:02
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Cardiovascular
2322 73 percent of Australians had too little vitamin D – Dec 2011 9121
06 Dec, 2012 23:36
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Deficiency of Vitamin D
Vitamin D in Australia & New Zealand
1866 Vitamin D insufficiency in UK youths – 37X more likely if dark skin – July 2011 8793
26 Sep, 2012 22:25
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Deficiency of Vitamin D
Youth
Vitamin D in Europe
660 Most people have pale palms which do not tan 8709
30 Jan, 2011 03:56
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