Maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based study
British Journal of Psychiatry Open Apr 2016, 2 (2) 170-172; DOI: 10.1192/bjpo.bp.116.002675
Cecilia Magnusson, Michael Lundberg, Brian K. Lee, Dheeraj Rai, Håkan Karlsson, Renee Gardner, Kyriaki Kosidou, Stefan Arver, Christina Dalman
Of ~509,000 children born in Sweden
2476 ASD with intellectual disability 2.51 X higher risk if < 10 nanograms
7406 ASD without intellectual disability. 1.3 X higher risk < 10 nanograms
See also VitaminDWiki
Background Maternal vitamin D deficiency may increase risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but direct evidence is lacking.
Aims To clarify the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and offspring risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability.
Method Using a register-based total population study (N=509 639), we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ASD with and without intellectual disability in relation to lifetime diagnoses of maternal vitamin D deficiency. Although rare, such deficiency was associated with offspring risk of ASD with, but not without, intellectual disability (aORs 2.51, 95% CI 1.22–5.16 and 1.28, 0.68–2.42). Relationships were stronger in non-immigrant children.
Conclusions If reflecting associations for prenatal hypovitaminosis, these findings imply gestational vitamin D substitution as a means of ASD prevention.
Subset of table in PDF
> 10 ng
< 10 ng
|Maternal history of neuropsychiatric disorder (%)a||2.4||9.3||<0.0001|
|Maternal history of affective disorder (%)b||15.4||36.8||<0.0001|
- a. Parental histories of neuropsychiatric disorder include any in-patient or secondary care out-patient record of diagnosed non-affective psychosis, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASD, or intellectual disability.
- b. Parental histories of affective disorder include any in-patient or secondary care out-patient record of diagnosed affective disorder except for bipolar disorder.